Altman—Posthum/an/ous

Posthum/an/ous: Identity, Imagination, and the Internet 

graduate thesis by Eric Stephen Altman

[Altman, Eric Stephen. 2010. “Posthum/an/ous: Identity, Imagination, and the Internet.” Thesis, Appalachian State University.]

Points

  • based mostly on online written materials, as well as 10 interviews
  • an English department MA thesis
  • looks at Furry, Otherkin, and Otakukin as three fandoms with three similar aspects
    1. emphasize an online avatar that represents identity to members
    2. engages in fan fiction
    3. has a sexual, fetishistic component as a prominent feature
      • “The object of this thesis is to engage in and describe three different communities that engage in community behavior that deviates from and challenges mainstream culture. Each of these communities is primarily based on the Internet and their members consistently identify with an identity that is not human. These communities often express discontentment with their human body or existence and instead idealize the conception of another state of existence. Interestingly enough, many members justify their beliefs by stating that they must have once been the creature that they identity with so, believing their past lives to be the one where they were once happy and accepted, as opposed to the sham of their human existence” (7).

By describing Otherkin as a fandom, Altman misses the boat completely

  • the piece references the furry subculture along with Otherkin & Otakukin as if they were comparable levels of identity
    • the problem= Furries identify with a non-human entity; Otherkin/Otakukin identify as a non-human entity
    • this leads the author to treat Otherkin identity as a fundamentally fictional construct, which is not the case to Otherkin
    • “Through the implementation of fiction and narrative, the fandoms are able to create and sustain complex fictional personas in complex fictional worlds, and thereby create a “real” subculture in physical reality, based entirely off of fiction” (33).

Altman gets close to describing Otherkin belief as a valid religion-like system by linking fandoms to mythology and religious structure:

  • “The devotion of fandoms to media is a new kind of mythology. Fans have the opportunity to adhere themselves to a system of fundamental guidelines that appeal to them, and these moral and societal edicts are transmitted through the narratives that are crafted by media and literature. The heroes and saints of religion are transmitted within the narrative of popular culture, and archetypes of mythology continue to define the way in which the viewer experiencing the media understands characters … A key difference between fandoms and religions is that fandoms are inherently outside of cultural hegemony” (41).

But then falls prey to the fandom construct by viewing Otherkin personal histories and narratives of awakening as genres of fan fiction—governed by rules, but completely fictional:

  • “if I were to endeavor to make a persona in the Otherkin community, I would have the nearly limitless horizons of fantasy literature and media from which to draw inspiration. I could easily craft a creature that defies all logical sense, but under the loose framework of fantasy, could indeed be completely plausible; if I establish enough background and history then my idea could be “believable” within the context of the fan community” (63).

Since the Otherkin belief system is based around the cultural productions of a fandom, it is an alternative ontological choice the members have made rather than a true belief system

  • “trappings of humanity isn’t so much an indication of the fandom’s sanity so much as a critique of a world that discarded them; humanity hasn’t worked, and so therefore the alternatives are explored” (89).
  • This is not necessarily true or false, but the fact that Altman starts from the position of a fandom precludes any exploration of ontological possibilities and does not take the participants of his research seriously.

Abstract

The Furry, Otherkin, and Otakukin are Internet fan subcultures whose members personally identify with non-human beings, such as animals, creatures of fantasy, or cartoon characters. I analyze several different forms of expression that the fandoms utilize to define themselves against the human world. These are generally narrative in execution, and the conglomeration of these texts provides the communities with a concrete ontology. Through the implementation of fiction and narrative, the fandoms are able to create and sustain complex fictional personas in complex fictional worlds, and thereby create a “real” subculture in physical reality, based entirely off of fiction. Through the use of the mutability of Internet performance and presentation of self-hood, the groups are able to present themselves as possessing the traits of previous, non-human lives; on the Internet, the members are post-human. The members no longer need to suffer through the society of humans around them: they can reclaim their past lives and live out a posthum/an/ous existence

Annotation Summary for: Altman – Posthum:an:ous

Page 1, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “POSTHUM/AN/OUS: IDENTITY, IMAGINATION, AND THE INTERNET A Thesis By ERIC STEPHEN ALTMAN ”

Page 7, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “CHAPTER I The Carnival of Community I Lives Never Lived”

Page 9, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “In the age of the Internet, the concept of groups has been changed dramatically by the ability of people to contact and organize within a virtual medium. This phenomenon has altered the base structure of a community: no longer does the physical body need to be present in order to perform the rituals and actions that definemembership within a group. ”

Page 10, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “The Internet has the potential to subvert the performative requisites of cultural membership, but while the body may be removed, the raison d’être of community remains: to distinguish itself and its ideology from other competing or opposing organizations.”

Page 10, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Since the physical body is essentially removed from the equation, the mind must now attempt to express through text the performative actions that define the person’s identity. We see many examples of this in the mainstream culture of the Internet: the widespread use of emoticons this fact is vital: persons using the Internet also possess the ability to present the idea of their physical form in any way that they desire.”

Page 11, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “instead of innately performing the requisites of their group and community, people have to actively interpret how and what and who to perform in order to achieve the desired identifying outcome.”

Page 11, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Through the use of the Internet, people can become anyone else, potentially freeing them from the negative stigma that might be applied to them; it also gives individuals disillusioned by or angry at the current hegemony a place to gather and coexist without the pressure or discrimination present in mainstream society.”

Page 12, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Indeed, divorced from the physical constraints of a world that has consistently rejected or manipulated individuals in the name of humanity, it isn’t hard to imagine people who might want to distance themselves from all things human by forming groups and identities based on ideological structures that aren’t supported by the limitations of physical reality.”

Page 13, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “The object of this thesis is to engage in and describe three different communities that engage in community behavior that deviates from and challenges mainstream culture. Each of these communities is primarily based on the Internet and their members consistently identify with an identity that is not human. These communities often express discontentment with their human body or existence and instead idealize the conception of another state of existence. Interestingly enough, many members justify their beliefs by stating that they must have once been the creature that they identity with so, believing their past lives to be the one where they were once happy and accepted, as opposed to the sham of their human existence.”

Page 13, Stamp (Star (Frame, Red))

Page 13, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “the current self is a posthumous shell of the original, superior life. These communities reaching out for a reality that has never existed; yet, through the Internet, their dreams have been born in the virtual world. Through the use of the mutability of Internet performance and presentation, the groups are able to present themselves as currently possessing the traits of their previous, non-human lives; on the Internet, the members are post-human. The members no longer need to suffer through the society of humans around them: they can reclaim their past lives and live out a posthum/an/ous existence.”

Page 13, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “II Identity in Masks”

Page 14, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “fandoms. The fan culture exists as an affront to the media and mainstream culture;while fans draw upon material that originates in media, the fandoms “own” and reappropriate mass produced culture for personal, fannish interests.”

Page 14, Highlight (Yellow): Content: “fandoms.”

Page 16, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “The fan groups that I investigate in this project are known as the Furries, the Otherkin, and the Otakukin, and while many similarities exist between each fandom, every one of the groups is uniquely positioned in their relationship to their fan material, and each group draws from a variety of fan material in order to form a cohesive unit.”

Page 17, Note (Orange): And hundreds of years of mythology?

Page 17, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Otherkin, as a group, identify with creatures that have never existed in the “real” world, such as griffons, dragons, elves, and myriad other beings drawn from fantasy literature and media.”

Page 17, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “While there are certainly many members of these fandoms who approach the participation in the community as a hobby, a very significant portion of each fandom legitimately believes that they are literally connectedto the persona that is used in the community. Very often, the fan believes that the animal or mythical creature is much more similar to his or her self-perception than humankind”

Page 17, Note (Orange): Then why are they just “fans”?

Page 18, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “The Furries, as stated above, are a fandom that centers around the attraction towards the perceived personality and positive traits of an anthropomorphized animal avatar. Most of the general population has only been exposed to the existence of Furriesthrough an episode of CSI, which portrayed the community as a sexually deviant collective whose activities centered around sexual gratification in raccoon suits”

Page 20, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Conway points out the flaws of the media machine, in that they are very willing to overlook the good and beneficial aspects of an allegedly deviant event in order to craft a narrative that emphasizes the “freak” aspect.”

Page 21, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “for the purposes of this study, I reiterate that I am focusing on the individuals who do believe in the metaphysical transmission of identity from animal to person, in whatever fashion devised.”

Page 21, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Anthropomorphizing the fan-object is significantly less common in the Otherkin, and even when the being is anthropomorphized, less emphasis is put on making the fan-object human.”

Page 22, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “The umbrella of what constitutes an Otherkin is very broad, and hotly contested by the members of the fandom. Questions such as whether vampires count as Otherkin, or whether the elves are a different subculture, or perhaps the dragons, being so populous, should be their own population category, are continually discussed and argued over. Essentially, and for the purposes of this paper, I am using the term Otherkin to denote any person who believes that his or her inner being is a creature from media or otherwise that does not exist, except for vampires. There is a very large subculture of people who believe themselves to be vampires of some type or another and is multi-faceted enough in my opinion to warrant their own investigation, outside the parameters of this thesis, despite their sometimes inclusion in lists of Otherkin “races.””

Page 22, Stamp (Exclamation Point (!, Red))

Page 22, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Another significant difference between the Otherkin and similar subcultures is the level to which the fandom has developed the mythology of fictional existence.”

Page 23, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “While the Furries and the Otakukin are both immensely creative in their fandoms, the Otherkin have a unity to their mythology and interpretation of the world that is unrivaled, and the power of this self-created knowledge to govern the functions and compositions of the Otherkin world is incredible in scope.”

Page 23, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “It’s part Carl Jung, part Joseph Campbell, and lots of liberal interpretations of reincarnation and quantum mechanics.”

Page 24, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “at the moment it is enough to understand that the beliefs of the Otakukin are possible only through an interpretation of media in a larger cultural context of multi-dimensional, pseudo-Jungian archetypes that can and do influence infinite worlds.”

Page 25, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “The Otakukin are unique in this study mainly for the sheer implausibility of their beliefs. It isn’t an unreasonable reaction to wonder how a person believes that they are spiritually connected to a fictional character in a cartoon or videogame. However, the members of this community do indeed believe that this happens, and just because it seems absolutely implausible doesn’t invalidate the beliefs of the Otakukin community. ”

Page 25, Note (Orange): But calling them a fandom does

Page 26, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “in contrast to many fandoms thatare organized around a single source of interest, bereft of individual contribution, the fandoms researched in this study are united by which identity a person adopts, which thereby adds to the fandom’s ongoing evolution and composition. ”

Page 26, Stamp (Star (Frame, Red))

Page 26, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “These researched groups have been largely ignored by academia and present a much different interpretation of the fan experience and illustrate the power that mediaand literature can exert upon a fan, especially when the fan is free to wield his/her interpretations on the Internet.”

Page 26, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “The research techniques I have utilized for this researchcombine etic ethnography and literary analysis that draw primarily on existing literature on fandom and fan fiction. This follows the traditional academic trend of fan research but also considers the fan’s experience of the art”

Page 28, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “It is important, in context of this project, to understand the Internet as a space that is composed, at least in part, of ideologically driven groups, all seeking a forum of free expression.”

Page 29, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Warf writes, Marginalized people who are unable to express their needs and identities in the so-called real world, such as gay youth in homophobic rural”

Page 30, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “contexts, can share interests and experiences in interactive discussion forums (chat rooms), forming classic “communities without propinquities,” spaces of shared interest without physical proximity (263)”

Page 30, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “The Internet no longer merely allows marginalized communities to have a space of their own; it essentially allows these groups to control areas of the Internet with the same level of authoritarian hegemony that the dominant culture once exerted upon them.”

Page 31, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Fairly intimate knowledge is as easily gained as typing a phrase or two into Google. Thus, the information that ties people together is rarely secret, and if it is, this obfuscation is often futile, as there is”

Page 32, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “always another way to acquire information, especially to those who understand the Internet better than the average person. So, if intimate knowledge of a group is imminently accessible, what does the group do in order to keep hostile outsiders at bay?”

Page 35, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “The temptation to emulate and identify with a fictional, idealized world is always present in the world of the fan, but the Internet allows for a more involved and invested attempt at emulation.”

Page 36, Stamp (Star (Frame, Red))

Page 36, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “The Internet allows fandoms to truly embrace the subversive world of the fan- object, and gives the fan the ability to fully immerse themselves in the fictional, appealing world that the fan object presents.”

Page 37, Note (Orange): What is the context? Where are these avatars? “The Internet” isn’t enough!

Page 37, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “The uniting factors of the researched fandoms are three fold. Each group researched emphasizes a digital avatar that represents the identity of the member in context of the fandom, participates in fan fiction, and each group has a sexual, fetishistic element as a prominent subculture.”

Page 37, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “The fandoms in this project ascribe identities to the users of the personas, and the users place value upon them as well, as this avatar is a physical representation of their personal, inner identity.”

Page 38, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “The fan fiction produced by the communities researched serve a distinct, identifying purpose: through the use ofcreativity, the fan author is able to use narrative to ontologically define him or herself. The fiction created has the potential to become a pseudo-reality, one wherein the author can recount his or her “true” nature.”

Page 38, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Furries, Otherkin, and Otakukin all possess a subculture that is highly sexualized and”

Page 39, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “invested in producing and consuming pornographic fiction.”

Page 39, Stamp (Star (Frame, Red))

Page 39, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “In this project, I will analyze the different forms of expression that each of the subcultures utilizes to define itself against the world. These are generally narrative in execution, and the conglomeration of these texts provides the communities with a concrete ontology. Through the implementation of fiction and narrative, the fandoms are able to create and sustain complex fictional personas in complex fictional worlds, and thereby create a “real” subculture in physical reality, based entirely off of fiction.”

Page 39, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “My methodology for primary research was the use of interviews with members of each community. I contacted individuals on forums and other points of community interaction, and presented them with an interview rubric that they were to then fill out. sample size of ten individuals”

Page 40, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “CHAPTER 2 The Transmission of the Narrative Soul I A Game of You”

Page 47, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “The devotion of fandoms to media is a new kind of mythology. Fans have the opportunity to adhere themselves to a system of fundamental guidelines that appealto them, and these moral and societal edicts are transmitted through the narratives that are crafted by media and literature. The heroes and saints of religion are transmitted within the narrative of popular culture, and archetypes of mythology continue to define the way in which the viewer experiencing the media understands characters. ”

Page 47, Stamp (Star (Frame, Red))

Page 47, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “A key difference between fandoms and religions is that fandoms are inherently outside of cultural hegemony.”

Page 48, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “The framing of the fan as a cultist creates a negative connotation that is exerted upon the fan by the dominant culture.”

Page 49, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “II A Link to the Past”

Page 49, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “The narrative identity of the fan is already positioned in a negative light as it goes against the hegemonic presuppositions of what is culturally proper to devote oneself to.”

Page 51, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “This poster might not necessarily even be a fan of such programming, but the presence of these narratives in the cultural consciousness dictate to a certain degree what metaphors he/she can draw upon to create and explain an identity.”

Page 56, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “One particularly interesting phenomenon I encountered within the fandoms is the concept of “soulbonding.” Through my interviews, I was able to meet a few members of the groups that believed that the characters within their fictions had actual stake within the real world, as in their personalities were present and real within the author of the fan fiction.”

Page 59, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “CHAPTER 3 The Use of Fan Fiction I The Pursuit of Ownership”

Page 59, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “The communities in this project are little different in the production and use of fan fiction. No matter what the specific interests of the particular fan, there is potentialfor the fan to create and/or enjoy fiction that adequately mirrors, recreates, and ultimately reappropriates the original media”

Page 62, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Through fan fiction, fan communities have the opportunity to continue the experience of their object of interest, and therefore keep the fandom occupied and sustained with new material and original interpretations.”

Page 63, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Just as language has a foundation in grammar, fan fiction is ontologically tied to the original fan object.”

Page 67, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “while fan fiction provides the critical examination of media as discussed by Jenkins, it potentially takes on an interesting dimension of immediate personal importance if the subject of the fiction is the author’s persona.”

Page 67, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “II The Pursuit of History”

Page 67, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Within the researched communities, there is a tremendous amount of fan fiction, written for all manner of purposes and positioned in an equally great number of contexts. Most of the stories involvepopular characters from movies or books, but the writers were often very keen to include their own characters and personas within the context of the original media. In this way, the fans accomplish Jenkins’ “poaching,” but also take the next step in the narrative development: the inclusion of a personal avatar within the context of the original narrative. ”

Page 67, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “fan fiction can potentially effect a function other than pleasure; it provides”

Page 68, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “the historic-mythological context of the persona. The Otherkin are particularly prominent in this regard, with vast documents that explore the history of the variousraces that compromise this particular subculture.”

Page 68, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “This subculture has perhaps the most focused fan fiction of the groups researched, as often the attempt is to reveal the forgotten history of the person’s avatar (Interview 3).”

Page 68, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “since an individual who believes that he/she is the reincarnation of a former being is essentially dealing with events that happened in the past; these individuals are, as John Keats once said, “living a posthumous existence.” The memories and emotions that fans claim to experience draw from a deceased or otherworldly source, and thus the onus of providing the history of that being or place falls upon the hands of the fan.”

Page 68, Highlight (Yellow): Content: “posthumous existence.””

Page 68, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “The character is the”

Page 69, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “person writing the story, so the history of the persona is entirely up to the developmental whims of the creator.”

Page 69, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “if I were to endeavor to make a persona in the Otherkin community, I would have the nearly limitless horizons of fantasy literature and media from which to draw inspiration. I could easily craft a creature that defies all logical sense, but under the loose framework of fantasy, could indeed be completely plausible; if I establish enough background and history then my idea could be “believable” within the context of the fan community.”

Page 69, Stamp (Star (Frame, Red))

Page 69, Note (Orange): Is this insulting? Otherkinity is a belief.

Page 72, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “each individual narrative can be modeled after the desires of the writer, thereby giving the writer full control over the “powers” of his persona? The conclusion seems to be that the extent of the Elenari “history” gives credence and background to the legitimacy of this particular branch of elves; the overwhelming narrative of power imbues those who adhere to it with that same history and that same potential for ability.”

Page 74, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Chapter 4 Real Pleasure in Fictional Lives I Stories Having Sex with Stories”

Page 74, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “The dominant form of fan fiction that I encountered was carnal in nature and unapologetically explicit in execution. The fantasies and desires of the writers were laid bare within the documents, which occupied a vast range of sexual actions and fetishes that were often physically impossible to perform in reality, which is analogous to the imaginary nature of the personas within the community.”

Page 76, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Sexuality plays an extremely visible and equally indivisible role within the Furry, Otherkin, and Otakukin communities.”

Page 85, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “II We Are What We Eat”

Page 86, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Voraphilia, colloquially referred to as vore, is a sexual fetish that centers on the sexual pleasure of consumption. The voraphile, basically, derives sexual pleasure out of the idea of being eaten and/or eating others; it is sexualized cannibalism.”

Page 86, Highlight (Yellow): Content: “Voraphilia,”

Page 89, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “If the process of fan fiction on the Internet, as Henry Jenkins put it, is folklore at light speed (35), then vore and much of the other pornography produced by the fandoms is the post-modern critique of these mythological structures.”

Page 89, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “In crafting stories wherein characters are mutilated, eaten, and then defecated, the authors of such work are inherently demythologizing the very narrative that defines thepersonas, since these stories no longer matter; it is just the sexual body being acted upon.”

Page 91, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Concluding Remarks”

Page 91, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “As this research draws to a close, I am perplexed as to precisely what I have learned in the exploration of this subject matter.”

Page 92, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “I was not prepared for the complex fusion of reality, fantasy, and fiction writing that seemed to permeate and define some of these texts. In them, the authors were ableto lead lives wholly different from their own and participate in a world that was essentially divorced from the physical, the human. ”

Page 92, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Just like literature performs as an artifact for interpreting the changing culture, the fan fiction of these communities provides a similar artifact; it simultaneously carries with it an analysis and critique of the original subject matter through a conception of a different world with different cultural values and further serves as an indication of how the particular community would function in this fictional world, thereby indicating the non-compatibility with the “real world.””

Page 93, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “As the research progressed in this project, the magnitude of what the researched groups believed was increasingly impressive to me: that their community wasn’t human. This struck me as perhaps the most hostile position a culture could possibly take, that there was something intrinsically lacking in the entirety of the human world. I was torn in my understanding of this.”

Page 93, Stamp (Star (Frame, Red))

Page 93, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “The desire to possess animal-like attributes is not a particularly challenging concept. Cultures have used anthropomorphized animals and beings throughout human history,”

Page 93, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “However, in the researched communities, the need to fully separate the animal from the human was profound, and though the personas were often anthropomorphized, the dichotomy between the subculture and mundane humans was a profound wedge.”

Page 94, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “The choice to discard the”

Page 95, Stamp (Star (Frame, Red))

Page 95, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “trappings of humanity isn’t so much an indication of the fandom’s sanity so much as a critique of a world that discarded them; humanity hasn’t worked, and so therefore the alternatives are explored.”

Page 96, Underline (Red): Content: “Bahktin, Mikhail. Rabelais and His World: Carnival and Grotesque. Bloomington, IN: Indiana UP, 1984. Print.

Baudrillard, Jean. The Consumer Society: Myths and Structures. London: Sage, 1998. Print.

Baym, Nancy K. “Talking About Soaps: Communicative Practices in a Computer- Mediated Fan Culture.” Theorizing Fandom: Fans, Subculture, and Identity. Cheryl Harris, Ed. New Jersey: Hampton Press, 1998. 111-131. Print.

Page 97, Underline (Red): Content: “Boellstorff, Tom. Coming of Age in Second Life: An Anthropologist Explores the Virtually Human. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 2008. Print.”

Page 97, Underline (Red): Content: “Butler, Judith. Bodies that Matter: On the Discursive Limits of Sex. London: Routledge, 1993. Print. — Undoing Gender. London: Routledge, 2004. Print.”

Page 98, Underline (Red): Content: “Foucault, Michel. The History of Sexuality: Volume 1. New York: Vintage, 1990. Print. — The Order of Things. New York: Vintage, 1994. Print. — The Birth of the Clinic. New York: Vintage, 1994. Print.”

Page 98, Underline (Red): Content: “Hayles, Katherine. How We Became Post-Human. Chicago: U of Chicago Press, 1999.Print. ”

Page 99, Underline (Red): Content: “Jenkins, Henry. Textual Poachers. London: Routledge, 1992. Print.”

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