Escobar – Welcome to Cyberia

Welcome to Cyberia: Notes on the Anthropology of Cyberculture

by Arturo Escobar

[Escobar, Arturo. 1994. “Welcome to Cyberia: Notes on the Anthropology of Cyberculture.” Current Anthropology 35 (3):211–31.]

Points

  • “The point of departure of this inquiry is the belief that any technology represents a cultural invention, in the sense that it brings forth a world; it emerges out of particular cultural conditions and in turn helps to create new ones” (211).
  • “the priority accorded science and theory over technical creativity has led moderns to believe that they can describe nature and society according to laws. Rather than as the effect of practice nature and society appear as objects with mechanisms and are therefore treated instrumentally” (213).
  • cyberculture” refers specifically to new technologies in two areas: artificial intelligence (particularly computer and information technologies) and biotechnology [… to] the realization that we increasingly live and make ourselves in techno-biocultural environments structured by novel forms of science and technology” (214).
  • Anthropological research into cybercultures should be guided by four inquiries:
    1. What are the discourses and practices that are generated around/by computers and biotechnology?
    2. How can these practices and domains be studied ethnographically in various social, regional, and ethnic settings?
    3. What is the background of understanding from which the new technologies emerge?
    4. What is the political economy of cyberculture? (215)
  • “The anthropology of cyberculture holds that we can assume a priori neither the existence of a era nor the need for a new branch of anthropology” (216).
  • “technoscience is motivating a blurring and implosion of categories at various levels, particularly the modern categories that defined the natural, the organic, the technical, and the textual”
    • “Bodies,” “organisms,” and “communities” thus have to be retheorized as composed of elements that originate in three different domains with permeable boundaries” (217).
  • Possible ethnographic domains and research strategies:
    1. The production and use of new technologies
    2. The appearance of Computer-mediated communities
    3. Studies of the popular culture of science and technology, including the effect of science and technology on the popular imaginary
    4. The growth and qualitative development of human computer-mediated communication, particularly from the perspective of the relationship between language communication, social structures, and cultural identity
    5. The political economy of cyberculture (217-219).
  • Then a bunch about complexity, including:
    • “The discovery that “inert” matter has properties that are remarkably close to those of life-forms led to the postulate that life is a property not of organic
      matter per se but of the organization of matter and hence to the concept of nonorganic life (de Landa 1992)” (221).

Terms

  • interface anthropology—put forth by Laurel (1990, 91-93), it is a “focus on user/context intersections, finding “informants” to guide the critical (not merely utilitarian) exploration of diverse users and contexts” (218).
    • appended to that definition is this cool footnote: “Walker (1990) distinguishes five phases in the history of user interfaces (1) knobs and dials, (2) batch (a specialist computer operator running a stack of jobs on punched cards), (3) timesharing (,4) menus, (5) graphics windows. The next phase will take the user directly ‘inside’ the computer, through the screen to cyberspace, so to say. This will be a three-dimensional space such as the one achieved by virtual reality today. The hope of designers is that it will replace more passive viewing with active participation” (218)
  • Poeisis—Heidegger’s term for the essence of Being. It’s present in the arts and certain Eastern philosophies. See The Question Concerning Technology
  • Social constructivism—a methodology and theoretical stance based on the idea “that, contrary to the technological determinism of past times, contingency and flexibility are the essence of technological change; by showing that social processes are inherent to technological innovations, they deal a fatal blow to the alleged separation of technology from society and of both of these from nature” (212).
  • interpretive flexibility—”the fact—long known to anthropologists—that different actors (“relevant social groups,” in the constructivists’ parlance) interpret technological artifacts in different ways” (212).

Abstract

Significant changes in the nature of social life are being brought about by computer information and biological technologies to the extent that—some argue—a new cultural order, “cyberculture,” is coming into being. This paper presents an overview of the types of anthropological analyses that are being conducted in the area of new technologies and suggests additional steps for the articulation of an anthropology of cyberculture. It builds upon science, technology, and society studies in various fields and on critical studies of modernity. The implications of technoscience for both anthropological theory and ethnographic research are explored.

 

Page 1, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Volume 35, Number 3, June I994 CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY by The Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research. All rights reserved 0OII-3204/94/3503-OOOI$2.50 ? I994”
Comment: Volume 35, Number 3, June I994
CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY
by The Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research. All rights reserved 0OII-3204/94/3503-OOOI$2.50
? I994

Page 1, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Welcome to Cyberia”
Comment: Welcome to Cyberia

Page 1, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “. Not only is this transformation clearly susceptible to anthropological in- quiry but it constitutes perhaps a privileged arena for advancing anthropology’s project of understanding hu- man societies from the vantage points of biology, lan- guage, history, and culture.”
Comment: . Not only is this transformation clearly susceptible to anthropological in- quiry but it constitutes perhaps a privileged arena for advancing anthropology’s project of understanding hu- man societies from the vantage points of biology, lan- guage, history, and culture.

Page 1, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Notes on the Anthropology of Cyberculture”
Comment: Notes on the Anthropology of
Cyberculture

Page 1, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “. This paper reviews the types of cultural analysis that are being conducted today on the social nature, impact, and use of new technologies and suggests additional contexts and steps toward the articulation of an “anthropology of cyberculture.”‘”
Comment: . This paper reviews the types of cultural analysis that are being conducted today on the social nature, impact, and use of new technologies and suggests additional contexts and steps toward the articulation of an “anthropology of cyberculture.”‘

Page 1, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “by Arturo Escobar”
Comment: by Arturo Escobar

Page 1, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “As a new domain of anthropological practice, the study of cyberculture is particularly concerned with the cultural constructions and reconstructions on which the new technologies are based and which they in turn help to shape.”
Comment: As a new domain of anthropological practice, the
study of cyberculture is particularly concerned with the
cultural constructions and reconstructions on which
the new technologies are based and which they in turn
help to shape.

Page 1, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Significant changes in the nature of social life are being brought about by computer, information, and biological technologies, to the extent that-some argue-a new cultural order, “cybercul- ture,” is coming into being. This paper presents an overview of the types of anthropological analyses that are being conducted in the area of new technologies and suggests additional steps for the ence, technology, and society studies in various fields and on crit-articulation of an anthropology of cyberculture. It builds upon sci- ical studies of modernity. The implications of technoscience for both anthropological theory and ethnographic research are ex- plored. “
Comment: Significant changes in the nature of social life are being brought about by computer, information, and biological technologies, to
the extent that-some argue-a new cultural order, “cybercul-
ture,” is coming into being. This paper presents an overview of
the types of anthropological analyses that are being conducted in
the area of new technologies and suggests additional steps for the ence, technology, and society studies in various fields and on crit-articulation of an anthropology of cyberculture. It builds upon sci- ical studies of modernity. The implications of technoscience for
both anthropological theory and ethnographic research are ex-
plored.

 

Page 1, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” The point of departure of this inquiry is the belief that any technology represents a cultural invention, in the sense that it brings forth a world; it emerges out of particular cultural conditions and in turn helps to create new ones.”
Comment: The point of departure of this inquiry is the belief that any technology represents a cultural invention, in the sense that it brings forth a world; it emerges out of particular cultural conditions and in turn helps to create new ones.

Page 1, Underline (Blue):
Content: “The point of departure of this inquiry is the belief that any technology represents a cultural invention, in the sense that it brings forth a world; it emerges out of particular helps to create new ones.”
Comment: The point of departure of this inquiry
is the belief that any technology represents a cultural
invention, in the sense that it brings forth a world; it
emerges out of particular
helps to create new ones.

Page 1, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Modernity, Technology, and the Social Sciences”
Comment: Modernity, Technology, and the Social
Sciences

Page 1, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “. In con- ventional approaches, technology is narrowly identified with tools or machines and the history of technology with the history of these instruments and their progres-sive efficacy in contributing to economic development and well-being. As a form of “applied science,” technol- ogy is held to be autonomous from society and value- neutral; since it is seen as neither good nor bad in itself, it cannot be faulted for the uses to which humans put it.2″
Comment: . In con- ventional approaches, technology is narrowly identified with tools or machines and the history of technology with the history of these instruments and their progres-sive efficacy in contributing to economic development and well-being. As a form of “applied science,” technol- ogy is held to be autonomous from society and value- neutral; since it is seen as neither good nor bad in itself, it cannot be faulted for the uses to which humans put it.2

Page 1, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The underlying theory is that science and technology induce progress autonomously-a belief represented by”
Comment: The underlying theory is that science and technology
induce progress autonomously-a belief represented by

Page 2, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “the metaphor of “the arrow of progress.””
Comment: the metaphor of “the arrow of progress.”

Page 2, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “roughly, from science to technology to industry to mar- ket and, finally, to social progress.”
Comment: roughly, from science to technology to industry to mar-
ket and, finally, to social progress.

Page 2, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “e-social constructivism has intro- duced several suggestive conceptual innovations. One of these is the notion of “interpretive flexibility,” which refers to the fact-long known to anthropologists-tha different actors (“relevant social groups,” in the con- structivists’ parlance) interpret technological artifacts in different ways.”
Comment: e-social constructivism has intro-
duced several suggestive conceptual innovations. One of
these is the notion of “interpretive flexibility,” which
refers to the fact-long known to anthropologists-tha
different actors (“relevant social groups,” in the con-
structivists’ parlance) interpret technological artifacts in
different ways.

Page 2, Highlight (Yellow):
Content: “”interpretive flexibility,””
Comment: “interpretive flexibility,”

Page 2, Highlight (Yellow):
Content: “(“relevant social groups,””
Comment: (“relevant social groups,”

Page 2, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “This would explain why particular technologies are adopted and not others.”
Comment: This would explain why particular technologies are
adopted and not others.

Page 2, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “In Callon and Latour’s “ac- tion-network theory,” research and development are similarly studied in terms of the way in which actors-human and nonhuman-struggle to identify the problem to be solved (San Martln and Lujan I992).”
Comment: In Callon and Latour’s “ac-
tion-network theory,” research and development are
similarly studied in terms of the way in which
actors-human and nonhuman-struggle to identify the
problem to be solved (San Martln and Lujan I992).

Page 2, Underline (Red):
Content: “Callon and Latour’s”
Comment: Callon and Latour’s

Page 2, Highlight (Yellow):
Content: ” “ac-tion-network theory”
Comment: “ac-tion-network theory

Page 2, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Science and tech- nology studies (STS), more generally, attempt to explain the implications of the constitution of science and tech- nology as dominant forms of knowledge and practice inmodern culture”
Comment: Science and tech-
nology studies (STS), more generally, attempt to explain
the implications of the constitution of science and tech-
nology as dominant forms of knowledge and practice inmodern culture

Page 2, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “It is widely held that science and technology studies have radically altered past approaches to technology At the heart of this renewal is the meth- odology of social constructivism, cultivated especially by sociologists and historians; in order to study science and technology as social constructs, scholars have taken to research laboratories, technology interest groups, and historical archives with new eyes.”
Comment: It is widely held that
science and technology studies have radically altered
past approaches to technology
At the heart of this renewal is the meth-
odology of social constructivism, cultivated especially
by sociologists and historians; in order to study science
and technology as social constructs, scholars have taken
to research laboratories, technology interest groups, and
historical archives with new eyes.

Page 2, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “From a dif- ferent perspective, it is said that social constructivism underplays the role of science in technological develop ment and minimizes the effect of other factors in that process such as the economy, the media, and the public sector (Sanmartln and Ortl I 992).”
Comment: From a dif-
ferent perspective, it is said that social constructivism
underplays the role of science in technological develop
ment and minimizes the effect of other factors in that
process such as the economy, the media, and the public
sector (Sanmartln and Ortl I 992).

Page 2, Highlight (Yellow):
Content: “Constructivists social constructivism,”
Comment: Constructivists
social constructivism,

Page 2, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Constructivists dem- onstrate that, contrary to the technological determinism of past times, contingency and flexibility are the essence of technological change; by showing that social pro cesses are inherent to technological innovations, they deal a fatal blow to the alleged separation of technolog from society and of both of these from nature.”
Comment: Constructivists dem-
onstrate that, contrary to the technological determinism
of past times, contingency and flexibility are the essence
of technological change; by showing that social pro
cesses are inherent to technological innovations, they
deal a fatal blow to the alleged separation of technolog
from society and of both of these from nature.

Page 3, Underline (Red):
Content: “Heideg- ger’s”
Comment: Heideg-
ger’s

Page 3, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “. Heideg- ger’s treatment of technology as a paradigmatic practice of modernity remains exemplary in this regard. Science and technology, for Heidegger, are ways of creating new realities, new manifestations of being. Modern science necessarily constructs (“enframes”) nature as something to be appropriated, something whose energy must be re- leased for human purposes.”
Comment: . Heideg- ger’s treatment of technology as a paradigmatic practice of modernity remains exemplary in this regard. Science and technology, for Heidegger, are ways of creating new
realities, new manifestations of being. Modern science necessarily constructs (“enframes”) nature as something to be appropriated, something whose energy must be re-
leased for human purposes.

Page 3, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “. Cyberculture is in fact fostering a fresh reformulation of the question of modernity in ways no longer so mediated by literary and epistemolog ical considerations.”
Comment: . Cyberculture is in fact fostering a fresh reformulation of the question of modernity in ways no longer so mediated by literary and epistemolog
ical considerations.

Page 3, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “This is “the danger in the utmost sense” to the extent that enframing leads structive activities and, particularly, to the destruction of other, more fundamental ways of revealing the es- sence of being (“poiesis”) which Heidegger sees present in the arts and in certain Eastern philosophies”
Comment: This is “the danger in the
utmost sense” to the extent that enframing leads
structive activities and, particularly, to the destruction
of other, more fundamental ways of revealing the es-
sence of being (“poiesis”) which Heidegger sees present in the arts and in certain Eastern philosophies

Page 3, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “the to de-“
Comment: the
to de-

Page 3, Highlight (Yellow):
Content: “(“poiesis”)”
Comment: (“poiesis”)

Page 3, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Technol- ogy for Heidegger also has an important ontological role in that the world becomes present for us through techni- n that the world becomes present for us through techni-brought with it particular arrangements of life, labor, cal links of various kinds; it is through technical prac- prac- the social character of the world comes to light tices that the (Heidegger i962).”
Comment: Technol-
ogy for Heidegger also has an important ontological role
in that the world becomes present for us through techni-
n that the world becomes present for us through techni-brought with it particular arrangements of life, labor, cal links of various kinds; it is through technical prac-
prac-
the social character of the world comes to light
tices that the
(Heidegger i962).

Page 3, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “According to Foucault (I973), the modern period brought with it particular arrangements of life, labor and language embodied in the multiplicity of practices through which life and society are produced, regulated and articulated by scientific discourses”
Comment: According to Foucault (I973), the modern period
brought with it particular arrangements of life, labor
and language embodied in the multiplicity of practices
through which life and society are produced, regulated
and articulated by scientific discourses

Page 3, Underline (Red):
Content: “Foucault (I973),”
Comment: Foucault (I973),

Page 3, Underline (Red):
Content: ” (Heidegger i962)”
Comment: (Heidegger i962)

Page 3, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “For these philosophers, the priority accorded science philosophers, the priority accorded science and theory over technical creativity has led modems to and theory over technical creativity has led modems to believe that they can describe nature and society ac- cording to laws. Rather than as the effect of practices nature and society appear as objects with mechanism and are therefore treated instrumentally (Medina and Sanmartln I989).”
Comment: For these philosophers, the priority accorded science
philosophers, the priority accorded science
and theory over technical creativity has led modems to
and theory over technical creativity has led modems to
believe that they can describe nature and society ac-
cording to laws. Rather than as the effect of practices
nature and society appear as objects with mechanism
and are therefore treated instrumentally (Medina and
Sanmartln I989).

Page 3, Underline (Blue):
Content: “the priority accorded science , the priority accorded science and theory over technical creativity has led modems to believe that they can describe nature and society ac- cording to laws. Rather than as the effect of practice nature and society appear as objects with mechanisms and are therefore treated instrumentally”
Comment: the priority accorded science
, the priority accorded science
and theory over technical creativity has led modems to
believe that they can describe nature and society ac-
cording to laws. Rather than as the effect of practice
nature and society appear as objects with mechanisms
and are therefore treated instrumentally

Page 3, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Modernity has been characterized by theoreticians such as Foucault (I973), Habermas (I987), and Gidden (I989) in terms of the continuous appropriation of taken for-granted cultural backgrounds and practices by ex plicit mechanisms of knowledge and power.”
Comment: Modernity has been characterized by theoreticians
such as Foucault (I973), Habermas (I987), and Gidden
(I989) in terms of the continuous appropriation of taken
for-granted cultural backgrounds and practices by ex
plicit mechanisms of knowledge and power.

Page 3, Underline (Red):
Content: “Foucault (I973), Habermas (I987), Giddens (I989)”
Comment: Foucault (I973),
Habermas (I987),
Giddens
(I989)

Page 4, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The Nature of Cyberculture”
Comment: The Nature of Cyberculture

Page 4, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “ters-“cyberculture” refers specifically to new technol- ogies in two areas: artificial intelligence (particularl computer and information technologies) and biotechnol ogy.9″
Comment: ters-“cyberculture” refers specifically to new technol-
ogies in two areas: artificial intelligence (particularl
computer and information technologies) and biotechnol
ogy.9

Page 4, Underline (Blue):
Content: “-“cyberculture” refers specifically to new technol- ogies in two areas: artificial intelligence (particularly computer and information technologies) and biotechno ogy.9″
Comment: -“cyberculture” refers specifically to new technol-
ogies in two areas: artificial intelligence (particularly
computer and information technologies) and biotechno
ogy.9

Page 4, Highlight (Yellow):
Content: “”cyberculture””
Comment: “cyberculture”

Page 4, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Given this brief presentation, anthropological re- taneously. While computer and information technolo- search might gies are bringing about a regime of technosociality quiries: might be guided by the following overall gies are bringing about a regime of technosociality quiries: in-“
Comment: Given this brief presentation, anthropological re-
taneously. While computer and information technolo- search might
gies are bringing about a regime of technosociality quiries:
might be guided by the following overall
gies are bringing about a regime of technosociality quiries:
in-

Page 4, Underline (Blue):
Content: “Given this brief presentation, anthropological re- search might be guided by the following overall in- quiries: i. What are the discourses and practices that are gen- erated around/by computers and biotechnology”
Comment: Given this brief presentation, anthropological re-
search might be guided by the following overall in-
quiries:

i. What are the discourses and practices that are gen-
erated around/by computers and biotechnology

Page 4, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “While computer and information technolo- gies are bringing about a regime of technosociality a broad process of sociocultural construc- (Stone i99i), tion set in motion in the wake of the i99i), new technologies, biotechnologies are giving rise to biosociality (Rabinow I992a), a new order for the production of life, nature and the body through biologically based technologica interventions. These two regimes form the basis for what I call cybercultur”
Comment: While computer and information technolo-
gies are bringing about a regime of technosociality
a broad process of sociocultural construc-
(Stone i99i),
tion set in motion in the wake of the
i99i),
new technologies,
biotechnologies are giving rise to biosociality (Rabinow I992a), a new order for the production of life, nature
and the body through biologically based technologica
interventions. These two regimes form the basis for
what I call cybercultur

Page 4, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “uiries: i. What are the discourses and practices that are gen- erated around/by computers and biotechnology?”
Comment: uiries:

i. What are the discourses and practices that are gen-
erated around/by computers and biotechnology?

Page 4, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “More generally, what new forms of social ated? More generally, what new forms of social construction of reality (“technoscapes”) and of negotia- tion of such construction(s) are introduced by the new technologies?”
Comment: More generally, what new forms of social
ated? More generally, what new forms of social construction of reality (“technoscapes”) and of negotia-
tion of such construction(s) are introduced by the new
technologies?

Page 4, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “They embody the realization that we increasingly live and make ourselves in techno- biocultural environments structured by novel forms of science and technology.”
Comment: They embody the realization
that we increasingly live and make ourselves in techno-
biocultural environments structured by novel forms of
science and technology.

Page 4, Underline (Blue):
Content: “the realization that we increasingly live and make ourselves in techno- biocultural environments structured by novel forms of science and technology.”
Comment: the realization
that we increasingly live and make ourselves in techno-
biocultural environments structured by novel forms of
science and technology.

Page 4, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “2. How can these practices and domains be studied ethnographically in various social, regional, and ethnic settings?”
Comment: 2. How can these practices and domains be studied
ethnographically in various social, regional, and ethnic
settings?

Page 4, Underline (Blue):
Content: “2. How can these practices and domains be studied ethnographically in various social, regional, and ethnic settings?”
Comment: 2. How can these practices and domains be studied
ethnographically in various social, regional, and ethnic
settings?

Page 4, Underline (Red):
Content: “”the elec- tronic underground” in the February 8, I993, issue of Time.”
Comment: “the elec-
tronic underground” in the February 8, I993, issue of Time.

Page 4, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “3. What is the background of understanding from which the new technologies emerge? More specifically which modern practices-in the domains of life, labor and language-shape the current understanding, design,and modes of relating to technology”
Comment: 3. What is the background of understanding from which the new technologies emerge? More specifically
which modern practices-in the domains of life, labor
and language-shape the current understanding, design,and modes of relating to technology

Page 4, Underline (Blue):
Content: “3. What is the background of understanding from which the new technologies emerge”
Comment: 3. What is the background of understanding from
which the new technologies emerge

Page 4, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “4. What is the political economy of cyberculture? and Third World restructured in the light of the new technologies? what ways, for instance, are the relations between First “
Comment: 4. What is the political economy of cyberculture?
and Third World restructured in the light of the new
technologies?
what ways, for instance, are the relations between First

Page 4, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “In”
Comment: In

Page 4, Underline (Blue):
Content: “4. What is the political economy of cybercultur”
Comment: 4. What is the political economy of cybercultur

Page 5, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The Anthropological Project THEORETICAL FORMULATIONS “
Comment: The Anthropological Project
THEORETICAL
FORMULATIONS

Page 5, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Anthropological reflection on the relation between culture and technology is of course not new. The impact ulture and technology is of course not new. The impact of Western technologies on cultural change and evolu- tion has been a subject of study since the early ig9os.14 “
Comment: Anthropological reflection on the relation between
culture and technology is of course not new. The impact
ulture and technology is of course not new. The impact of Western technologies on cultural change and evolu- tion has been a subject of study since the early ig9os.14

Page 5, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “In the First World, attempts at articulating an anthro- pological strategy explicitly centered on new informa- tion, computer, and biological technologies have just be- Mead’s work in the context of the emergence of cyber- tion, computer, and biological technologies have just be- gun. An important precursor in this regard was Margaret netics during World War II and up to the middle of the i960s.15”
Comment: In the First World, attempts at articulating an anthro-
pological strategy explicitly centered on new informa-
tion, computer, and biological technologies have just be-
Mead’s work in the context of the emergence of cyber-
tion, computer, and biological technologies have just be-
gun. An important precursor in this regard was Margaret
netics during World War II and up to the middle of the i960s.15

Page 5, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “At the beginning of the I99Os, it is possible”
Comment: At the beginning of the I99Os, it is possible

Page 5, Underline (Blue):
Content: “At the beginning of the I99Os, it is possible”
Comment: At the beginning of the I99Os, it is possible

Page 5, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “I4. Among the best-known studies is Godelier’s (I97I) work on the effects of the introduction of steel axes on Australian Aborigi-nes and the Baruya of Papua New Guinea. For an excellent discus- sion of earlier studies, see Hess (I993). “
Comment: I4. Among the best-known studies is Godelier’s (I97I) work on
the effects of the introduction of steel axes on Australian Aborigi-nes and the Baruya of Papua New Guinea. For an excellent discus- sion of earlier studies, see Hess (I993).

 

Page 6, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “to identify three different proposals. The first, by the anthropologist David Thomas, builds upon the growin literature on the notions of “cyberspace”’16 and “cy- borg”-broadly speaking, a mixture of human and ma- chine. Arguing that advanced forms of Western technol- ogy are bringing about a “rite of passage” between industrial and “postorganic” societies, between “organi cally human and cyberpsychically digital life-forms reconfigured through computer software systems,” “
Comment: to identify three different proposals. The first, by the
anthropologist David Thomas, builds upon the growin
literature on the notions of “cyberspace”’16 and “cy-
borg”-broadly speaking, a mixture of human and ma- chine. Arguing that advanced forms of Western technol-
ogy are bringing about a “rite of passage” between
industrial and “postorganic” societies, between “organi
cally human and cyberpsychically digital life-forms
reconfigured through computer software systems,”

Page 6, Underline (Blue):
Content: “to identify three different proposals. The first, The second”
Comment: to identify three different proposals.
The first,
The second

Page 6, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “From print-based paradigms of visual literacy to the virtual worlds of digitized information, we are wit- nessing a transition to a new postcorporeal stage that has great promise for creative social logics and sensorial regimes.”
Comment: From print-based paradigms of visual literacy to
the virtual worlds of digitized information, we are wit- nessing a transition to a new postcorporeal stage that
has great promise for creative social logics and sensorial
regimes.

Page 6, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The second project, “cyborg anthropology,” takes science and technology studies, as a point of departure.”
Comment: The second project, “cyborg anthropology,”
takes science and technology studies,
as a point of departure.

Page 6, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “While its domain technology as cultural phe- is the analysis of science and technology nomena, the main goal of cyborg anthropology is the ethnographic study of the boundaries between humans and machines that are specific to late-2oth-century soci- eties. Believing that “anthropos” ject of anthropology must be displaced,”
Comment: While its domain
technology as cultural phe-
is the analysis of science and technology
nomena, the main goal of cyborg anthropology is the
ethnographic study of the boundaries between humans
and machines that are specific to late-2oth-century soci-
eties. Believing that “anthropos”
ject of anthropology must be displaced,

Page 6, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “as the subject and ob- the emergin cyborg anthropologists argue that human and social real ity is as much a product of machines as of human activ ity, that we should grant agency to machines, and that , that we should grant agency to machines, and that the proper task for an anthropology of science and tech nology is to examine ethnographically how technology serves as agent of social and cultural production.’7”
Comment: as the subject and ob-
the emergin
cyborg anthropologists argue that human and social real
ity is as much a product of machines as of human activ
ity, that we should grant agency to machines, and that
, that we should grant agency to machines, and that
the proper task for an anthropology of science and tech
nology is to examine ethnographically how technology
serves as agent of social and cultural production.’7

Page 6, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The anthropology of cyberculture we can holds that assume a priori neither the existence of a newera nor the need for a new branch of anthropolog”
Comment: The anthropology of cyberculture
we can
holds that
assume a priori neither the existence of a newera nor the need for a new branch of anthropolog

Page 6, Underline (Blue):
Content: “The anthropology of cyberculture holds that we can assume a priori neither the existence of a era nor the need for a new branch of anthropology.”
Comment: The anthropology of cyberculture
holds that
we can assume a priori neither the existence of a
era nor the need for a new branch of anthropology.

Page 6, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “In- era nor the need for a new branch of anthropology. In- deed, the discipline is in principle well suited to what deed, the discipline is in principle well suited to what must start as a rather traditional ethnographic project: to describe, in the manner of an initial cultural diagno- to describe, in the manner of an initial cultural diagno sis, what is happening in terms of the emerging practices and transformations associated tific associated with rising technoscien-“
Comment: In-
era nor the need for a new branch of anthropology. In- deed, the discipline is in principle well suited to what
deed, the discipline is in principle well suited to what must start as a rather traditional ethnographic project: to describe, in the manner of an initial cultural diagno-
to describe, in the manner of an initial cultural diagno
sis, what is happening in terms of the emerging practices
and transformations associated
tific
associated with rising technoscien-

Page 6, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” transformations associated with rising technoscien-tific developments”
Comment: transformations associated with rising technoscien-tific developments

Page 7, Underline (Blue):
Content: “technoscience is motivating a blurring and implosion of categories at have defined the natural, the organic, the technical, and the textual”
Comment: technoscience
is motivating a blurring and implosion of categories at
have defined the natural, the organic, the technical, and the textual

Page 7, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “One of the most fruitful insights is that technoscience is motivating a blurring and implosion of categories at various levels, particularly the modern categories that have defined the natural, the organic, the technical, and the textual. “Bodies,” “organisms,” and “communi- ties” thus have to be retheorized as composed of ele- meable boundaries: the organic, the ments that originate in three different domains with per- hat originate in three different domains with per- meable boundaries: the organic, the technical (or technoeconomic), and the textual (or, broadly speaking, cultural). (Haraway I991 ). according to complex historical factors in which dis-courses of science and technology play a decisive role between organism and machine are ceaselessly redrawn The boundaries between nature and culture,”
Comment: One of the most fruitful insights is that technoscience
is motivating a blurring and implosion of categories at
various levels, particularly the modern categories that
have defined the natural, the organic, the technical, and
the textual.
“Bodies,” “organisms,” and “communi-
ties” thus have to be retheorized as composed of ele-
meable boundaries: the organic, the
ments that originate in three different domains with per-
hat originate in three different domains with per-
meable boundaries: the organic, the technical (or
technoeconomic), and the textual (or, broadly speaking,
cultural).
(Haraway I991 ).
according to complex historical factors in which dis-courses of science and technology play a decisive role
between organism and machine are ceaselessly redrawn
The boundaries between nature and culture,

Page 7, Underline (Blue):
Content: “various levels, particularly the modern categories that”
Comment: various levels, particularly the modern categories that

Page 7, Underline (Blue):
Content: “”Bodies,” “organisms,” and “communi- ties” thus have to be retheorized as composed of ele- meable boundaries:”
Comment: “Bodies,” “organisms,” and “communi-
ties” thus have to be retheorized as composed of ele-
meable boundaries:

Page 7, Underline (Red):
Content: “(Haraway I991 “
Comment: (Haraway I991

Page 7, Underline (Blue):
Content: “ments that originate in three different domains with per-“
Comment: ments that originate in three different domains with per-

Page 7, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “ETHNOGRAPHIC DOMAINS DOMAINS”
Comment: ETHNOGRAPHIC
DOMAINS
DOMAINS

Page 7, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “While nature, bodies, and organisms certainly have an organic basis, they are increasingly produced in conjunction with machines, and this production is always mediated by scientific narratives (“discourses” of biology, technology, and the like) and by culture in general.”
Comment: While nature, bodies, and organisms certainly
have an organic basis, they are increasingly produced
in conjunction with machines, and this production is
always mediated by scientific narratives (“discourses”
of biology, technology, and the like) and by culture in
general.

Page 7, Underline (Magenta):
Content: “As I have said, the general questions to be raised by What new forms of social construction of reality and of modified? How are people socialized by their routine technologies? How do people relate to their techno- people are differently placed in technospaces (according ability”), how do their experiences of these spaces differ? As I have said, the general questions to be raised by the anthropology of cyberculture include the following:What new forms of social construction of reality and worlds (machines, reinvented bodies, and natures)? If negotiation of such constructions are being created or modified? How are people socialized by their routine experience of the constructed spaces created by the new t to race, gender, class, geographical location, “physical”
Comment: As I have said, the general questions to be raised by
What new forms of social construction of reality and of
modified? How are people socialized by their routine
technologies? How do people relate to their techno-
people are differently placed in technospaces (according
ability”), how do their experiences of these spaces differ?
As I have said, the general questions to be raised by the anthropology of cyberculture include the following:What new forms of social construction of reality and
worlds (machines, reinvented bodies, and natures)? If
negotiation of such constructions are being created or modified? How are people socialized by their routine
experience of the constructed spaces created by the new t
to race, gender, class, geographical location, “physical

Page 7, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “. For some (Haraway I99I, Rabinow I992a), while cyberculture can be seen as the imposition of a new grid of control on the planet, it also represents new possibili- ties for potent articulations between humans, nature and machines. The organic, these critics suggest, is not necessarily opposed to the technological. the Human Genome project; might rove to be the greatest force for reshaping society and through technique; it will be literally built in the same of nature will take place through the reconfiguration ology, and biotechnology (Rabinow i992a). social life by micropractices originating in medicine, bi- way that culture is, with the difference that the making prove to be the greatest force for reshaping society and life ever witnessed. Nature will be known and remade reconfiguration of”
Comment: . For some (Haraway I99I, Rabinow I992a), while
cyberculture can be seen as the imposition of a new grid
of control on the planet, it also represents new possibili-
ties for potent articulations between humans, nature
and machines. The organic, these critics suggest, is not
necessarily opposed to the technological.
the Human Genome project;
might
rove to be the greatest force for reshaping society and
through technique; it will be literally built in the same
of nature will take place through the reconfiguration
ology, and biotechnology (Rabinow i992a).
social life by micropractices originating in medicine, bi-
way that culture is, with the difference that the making
prove to be the greatest force for reshaping society and life ever witnessed. Nature will be known and remade
reconfiguration of

Page 7, Underline (Red):
Content: “(Rabinow i992a). (Haraway I99I, Rabinow I992a),”
Comment: (Rabinow i992a).
(Haraway I99I, Rabinow I992a),

Page 7, Underline (Magenta):
Content: “settings? Finally, would it be possible to produce ethnographicaccounts of the multiplicity of practices linked to the new technologies in various social, regional, and ethnic”
Comment: settings?
Finally, would it be possible to produce ethnographicaccounts of the multiplicity of practices linked to the
new technologies in various social, regional, and ethnic

Page 7, Underline (Blue):
Content: “One can begin to think of these questions in terms of possible ethnographic domains and concrete research strategies.”
Comment: One can begin to think of these questions in terms
of possible ethnographic domains and concrete research
strategies.

Page 7, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “One can begin to think of these questions in terms of possible ethnographic domains and concrete research strategies.”
Comment: One can begin to think of these questions in terms
of possible ethnographic domains and concrete research
strategies.

Page 7, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “i. The production and use of new technologies.”
Comment: i. The production and use of new technologies.

Page 7, Underline (Blue):
Content: “i. The production and use of new technologies.”
Comment: i. The production and use of new technologies.

Page 7, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “. Here anthropological research would focus on scientists and experts in sites such as genetic research labs, high- technology corporations, and virtual reality design cen- ters, on the one hand, and the users of these technolo-gies, on the other”
Comment: . Here anthropological research would focus on scientists and experts in sites such as genetic research labs, high- technology corporations, and virtual reality design cen- ters, on the one hand, and the users of these technolo-gies, on the other

Page 7, Underline (Red):
Content: “(Latour and Woolgar I979, Latour I988, Kondo I990), Hess and Layne I992, Hess I993), Pfaffenberger I992, (Haraway I989, I99I;”
Comment: (Latour and Woolgar I979,
Latour I988,
Kondo I990),
Hess and Layne I992, Hess I993),
Pfaffenberger I992,

(Haraway I989, I99I;

Page 7, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The corollary of these analyses is the need to pay at- tention to the social and cultural relations of science and technology as central mechanisms for the production of life and culture in the 2Ist century”
Comment: The corollary of these analyses is the need to pay at-
tention to the social and cultural relations of science and
technology as central mechanisms for the production of
life and culture in the 2Ist century

Page 8, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “A salient aspect of research in this domain is the eth- nographic study of the production of subjectivities that accompanies the new technologies”
Comment: A salient aspect of research in this domain is the eth-
nographic study of the production of subjectivities that accompanies the new technologies

Page 8, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” not only for understanding what these new “villages” and “communities” are but, equally important, for imagining the kinds of communities that human groups magining the kinds of communities that human groups can create with the help of emerging technologies.”
Comment: not only for understanding what these new “villages”
and “communities” are but, equally important, for
imagining the kinds of communities that human groups
magining the kinds of communities that human groups can create with the help of emerging technologies.

Page 8, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “That the computer is “an evocative object,” a projective medium for the construction of a variety of private and public worlds has been shown by Sherry Turkle (i984). “
Comment: That the computer
is “an evocative object,” a projective medium for the
construction of a variety of private and public worlds
has been shown by Sherry Turkle (i984).

Page 8, Underline (Red):
Content: “Sherry Turkle (i984).”
Comment: Sherry Turkle (i984).

Page 8, Underline (Magenta):
Content: “A variant of this line of research is what Laurel (i990: 9I-93) has termed “interface anthropology.””
Comment: A variant of this line of research is what Laurel (i990:
9I-93)
has termed “interface anthropology.”

Page 8, Underline (Red):
Content: ” Laurel (i990: 9I-93)”
Comment: Laurel (i990:
9I-93)

Page 8, Highlight (Yellow):
Content: “”interface anthropology.””
Comment: “interface anthropology.”

Page 8, Underline (Magenta):
Content: “Children, teachers, computer game designers and users, fiction writers, architects, community activists, and others have different needs and approaches regard- tersections, finding “informants” to guide the critical ing these basic questions. An “interface anthropology” (not merely utilitarian) exploration of diverse users and that addresses this lack would focus on user/context in- contexts.23″
Comment: Children, teachers, computer game designers and
users, fiction writers, architects, community activists, and others have different needs and approaches regard-
tersections, finding “informants” to guide the critical
ing these basic questions. An “interface anthropology”
(not merely utilitarian) exploration of diverse users and
that addresses this lack would focus on user/context in-
contexts.23

Page 8, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “3. Studies of the popular culture of science and tech- nology, including the effect of science and technology on the popular imaginary (the set of basic elements that structure a given discourse and the relations among them) and popular practices”
Comment: 3. Studies of the popular culture of science and tech-
nology, including the effect of science and technology
on the popular imaginary (the set of basic elements that
structure a given discourse and the relations among
them) and popular practices

Page 8, Underline (Blue):
Content: “3. Studies of the popular culture of science and tech- nology, including the effect of science and technology on the popular imaginar”
Comment: 3. Studies of the popular culture of science and tech-
nology, including the effect of science and technology
on the popular imaginar

Page 8, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “To the extent that the reconstruction of space entails the reconstruction of the body, this also needs to be the- orized. How is the body being reconfigured and reim- agined through inscriptions at the level of the relation between body and machine?”
Comment: To the extent that the reconstruction of space entails
the reconstruction of the body, this also needs to be the-
orized. How is the body being reconfigured and reim-
agined through inscriptions at the level of the relation
between body and machine?

Page 8, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The appearance of computer-mediated communi- 2. ties, such as the so-called virtual communities and, gen- erally, what one of the most creative computer environ ment designers has called “the vibrant new villages of activity within the larger cultures of computing” (Laurel I990:93).21 Anthropological analysis can be important”
Comment: The appearance of computer-mediated communi-
2.
ties, such as the so-called virtual communities and, gen-
erally, what one of the most creative computer environ
ment designers has called “the vibrant new villages of activity within the larger cultures of computing” (Laurel
I990:93).21 Anthropological analysis can be important

Page 8, Underline (Blue):
Content: “2. The appearance of computer-mediated communi”
Comment: 2. The appearance of computer-mediated communi

Page 8, Underline (Blue):
Content: “ties”
Comment: ties

Page 8, Underline (Red):
Content: “I990:93).21 (Laurel”
Comment: I990:93).21
(Laurel

Page 9, Underline (Blue):
Content: “face-to-face interaction.”
Comment: face-to-face interaction.

Page 9, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “A barely explored question in this domain is the hy- pothesized transition to a postscriptural society effected by information technologies. If writing and its associ- ated logical modes of thought replaced orality and its associated situational ways of thinking, the informati age would be marking the abandonment of writing as the dominant intellectual technology.”
Comment: A barely explored question in this domain is the hy-
pothesized transition to a postscriptural society effected
by information technologies. If writing and its associ-
ated logical modes of thought replaced orality and its
associated situational ways of thinking, the informati
age would be marking the abandonment of writing as
the dominant intellectual technology.

Page 9, Underline (Magenta):
Content: “A barely explored question in this domain is the hy- pothesized transition to a postscriptural society effected by information technologies. If writing and its associ- ated logical modes of thought replaced orality and its associated situational ways of thinking, the information age would be marking the abandonment of writing as the dominant intellectual technology.”
Comment: A barely explored question in this domain is the hy-
pothesized transition to a postscriptural society effected by information technologies. If writing and its associ-
ated logical modes of thought replaced orality and its
associated situational ways of thinking, the information
age would be marking the abandonment of writing as
the dominant intellectual technology.

Page 9, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “4. The growth and qualitative development of human computer-mediated communication, particularly from the perspective of the relationship between language, communication, social structures, and cultural identity”
Comment: 4. The growth and qualitative development of human computer-mediated communication, particularly from
the perspective of the relationship between language,
communication, social structures, and cultural identity

Page 9, Underline (Blue):
Content: “4. The growth and qualitative development of human computer-mediated communication, particularly from the perspective of the relationship between language communication, social structures, and cultural identity”
Comment: 4. The growth and qualitative development of human
computer-mediated communication, particularly from
the perspective of the relationship between language
communication, social structures, and cultural identity

Page 9, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” Human interactio through computers must be studied not only from the perspective of the transcultural/transsituational princi- ples and discourse strategies (Gumperz i983) govern ing any type of human interaction but also in terms of the specificity of the communicative and linguistic prac tices that arise from the nature of the media involved”
Comment: Human interactio
through computers must be studied not only from the
perspective of the transcultural/transsituational
princi-
ples and discourse strategies (Gumperz i983) govern
ing any type of human interaction but also in terms of
the specificity of the communicative and linguistic prac
tices that arise from the nature of the media involved

Page 9, Underline (Red):
Content: “(Gumperz i983)”
Comment: (Gumperz i983)

Page 9, Underline (Blue):
Content: “(a) the relationship between ma- chines and social subjects as producers of discourse at the threshold of the birth of an international “cyberliter ate” society; (b) the question of the creation and distri- bution of and access to the “authorized” or “legitimate” computer-mediated communication codes and lan- guages whose mastery and manipulation grants particu lar groups of practitioners symbolic authority and con- trol over the circulation of cyberculture; (c) the role of computer-mediated communication in establishing links between, giving cohesion to, and creating continu ities in the interactional history of group members, side by side with telephone conversations, regular mail, and “
Comment: (a) the relationship between ma-
chines and social subjects as producers of discourse at
the threshold of the birth of an international “cyberliter
ate” society; (b) the question of the creation and distri-
bution of and access to the “authorized” or “legitimate”
computer-mediated communication
codes and lan- guages whose mastery and manipulation grants particu
lar groups of practitioners symbolic authority and con-
trol over the circulation of cyberculture; (c) the role
of computer-mediated communication in establishing
links between, giving cohesion to, and creating continu
ities in the interactional history of group members, side
by side with telephone conversations, regular mail, and

Page 9, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “5. The political economy of cyberculture.”
Comment: 5. The political economy of cyberculture.

Page 9, Underline (Blue):
Content: “5. The political economy of cyberculture”
Comment: 5. The political economy of cyberculture

Page 10, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “the biophysical milieu (nature)”
Comment: the biophysical milieu (nature)

Page 11, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The discovery that “inert” matter has proper- ties that are remarkably close to those of life-forms led to the postulate that life is a property not of organic matter per se but of the organization of matter and hence to the concept of nonorganic life (de Landa i992). “
Comment: The discovery that “inert” matter has proper-
ties that are remarkably close to those of life-forms led
to the postulate that life is a property not of organic
matter per se but of the organization of matter and hence
to the concept of nonorganic life (de Landa i992).

Page 11, Underline (Magenta):
Content: “The discovery that “inert” matter has proper- ties that are remarkably close to those of life-forms led to the postulate that life is a property not of organic matter per se but of the organization of matter and hence to the concept of nonorganic life”
Comment: The discovery that “inert” matter has proper-
ties that are remarkably close to those of life-forms led
to the postulate that life is a property not of organic
matter per se but of the organization of matter and hence
to the concept of nonorganic life

Page 11, Underline (Red):
Content: “(de Landa i992).”
Comment: (de Landa i992).

Page 11, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Rethinking Technology? Anthropology and Complexity”
Comment: Rethinking Technology? Anthropology and
Complexity

Page 11, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Technological innovations and dominant world views generally transform each other so as to legitimate and naturalize the technologies of the time.”
Comment: Technological innovations and dominant world views
generally transform each other so as to legitimate and
naturalize the technologies of the time.

Page 11, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” legitimate and naturalize the technologies of the time. Nature and soci- ety come to be explained in ways that reinforce the tech- nological imperatives of the day, making them appear the most rational and efficient form of social practice”
Comment: legitimate and
naturalize the technologies of the time. Nature and soci- ety come to be explained in ways that reinforce the tech-
nological imperatives of the day, making them appear
the most rational and efficient form of social practice

Page 12, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The science of complexity has also replaced i gth- century physics with modern biology as a model; Whereas Cartesian epistemology and Newtonian science sought to model the order of things according to laws, the science of com- plexity-although still searching for a general law of pat- tern formation for all nonequilibrium systems in the universe-espouses a pluralistic view of the physical world, webs rather than structures, and connections and world, webs rather than structures, and connections and ptransgressions instead of neat boundaries isolating pris- tine systems.”
Comment: The science of complexity has also replaced i gth-
century physics with modern biology as a model;
Whereas Cartesian
epistemology and Newtonian science sought to model
the order of things according to laws, the science of com-
plexity-although still searching for a general law of pat-
tern formation for all nonequilibrium systems in the
universe-espouses a pluralistic view of the physical world, webs rather than structures, and connections and
world, webs rather than structures, and connections and ptransgressions instead of neat boundaries isolating pris-
tine systems.

Page 12, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “stricted to complexity. Maturana, Varela, and coworkers (Maturana and Varela I987, Varela, Thompson, and Rosch 1991) have made self-organization (the auto- poiesis of the living) the cornerstone of their theoretica biology and epistemology.”
Comment: stricted to complexity. Maturana, Varela, and coworkers
(Maturana and Varela I987, Varela, Thompson, and
Rosch 1991)
have made self-organization (the auto-
poiesis of the living) the cornerstone of their theoretica
biology and epistemology.

Page 12, Underline (Red):
Content: “(Maturana and Varela I987, Varela, Thompson, and Rosch 1991)”
Comment: (Maturana and Varela I987,
Varela, Thompson, and
Rosch 1991)

Page 12, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The idea of self-organization is not re-“
Comment: The idea of self-organization is not re-

Page 13, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “again reaching, as in the anthropology of this century, premature closure around the figures of the other and the same. it has been lived and is being lived at this very moment. These questions, and cyberculture generally, concern what anthropology is about: the story of life as it has been lived and is being lived at this very moment.”
Comment: again reaching, as in the anthropology of this century,
premature closure around the figures of the other and
the same.
it has been lived and is being lived at this very moment.
These questions, and cyberculture generally,
concern what anthropology is about: the story of life as it has been lived and is being lived at this very moment.

Page 13, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The perspective that com- plexity scientists are attempting to bring to the scien- tific community and the public is indeed powerful, and its influence is likely to grow. The widespread articulation and adoption of technologi- cal understandings and policies that might contribute to people’s autonomous lives and self-organizing experi- ences are at best many years in the future.”
Comment: The perspective that com-
plexity scientists are attempting to bring to the scien-
tific community and the public is indeed powerful, and
its influence is likely to grow.
The widespread articulation and adoption of technologi-
cal understandings and policies that might contribute to
people’s autonomous lives and self-organizing experi-
ences are at best many years in the future.

Page 13, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “It is not a question of bringing about a technosocial utopia-decentralized, self-managed, empowering-but one of thinking imagi- natively whether technoscience cannot be partially re oriented to serve different cultural and political projects”
Comment: It is not a question
of bringing about a technosocial utopia-decentralized,
self-managed, empowering-but one of thinking imagi-
natively whether technoscience cannot be partially re
oriented to serve different cultural and political projects

Page 13, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Anthropology without Primitives?”
Comment: Anthropology without Primitives?

Page 13, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Cyberculture, offers a chance for anthropology to renew itself without”
Comment: Cyberculture,
offers a chance for anthropology to renew itself without

Page 14, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “elegantly ency- clopedic”
Comment: elegantly ency-
clopedic

Underline (Red):
Content: “ENEDIKT, MICHAEL. bridge: M.I.T. Press. BIJKER, W. P., T. P. HUGHES, AND T. PINCH. Editors. I987. The social construction of technological systems: New direc-tions in the sociology and history of technology. Cambrid”
Comment: ENEDIKT,
MICHAEL.
bridge: M.I.T. Press.
BIJKER, W. P., T. P. HUGHES,
AND
T. PINCH.
Editors. I987.
The social construction of technological systems: New direc-tions in the sociology and history of technology. Cambrid

Page 19, Underline (Red):
Content: “i986. High technology, world develop- MANUEL. CASTELLS, The trends and the de- ment, and structural transformation: bates. Alternatives I I:297-344.”
Comment: i986. High technology, world develop-
MANUEL.
CASTELLS,
The trends and the de-
ment, and structural transformation:
bates. Alternatives I I:297-344.

Page 19, Underline (Red):
Content: “JURGEN. i987. The philosophical discourse of mo- HABERMAS, dernity. Cambridge: M.I.T. Press.”
Comment: JURGEN. i987. The philosophical discourse of mo-
HABERMAS,
dernity. Cambridge: M.I.T. Press.

Page 19, Underline (Red):
Content: “eview I(e2): 3I-33. ELANDA, MANUEL. i99i. War in the age of intelligent ma-chines. New York: Zone Books. . i992. “Nonorganic life,” in Incorporations. Edited by AND SANFORD KWINTER. CRARY, JONATHAN, Incorporations. New York: Zone Books”
Comment: eview I(e2): 3I-33.
ELANDA, MANUEL. i99i. War in the age of intelligent ma-chines. New York: Zone Books.
. i992. “Nonorganic life,” in Incorporations. Edited by
AND SANFORD
KWINTER.
CRARY, JONATHAN,
Incorporations. New York: Zone Books

Page 19, Underline (Red):
Content: “ARAWAY, DONNA. i988. Situated knowledges: The science question in feminism as a site of discourse on the privilege of partial perspective. Feminist Studies I4:575-99. [Ms] i989. Primate visions. New York: Routledge. .99i. Simians, cyborgs, and women: The reinventio”
Comment: ARAWAY, DONNA. i988. Situated knowledges: The science
question in feminism as a site of discourse on the privilege of partial perspective. Feminist Studies I4:575-99. [Ms]
i989. Primate visions. New York: Routledge.
.99i. Simians, cyborgs, and women: The reinventio

Page 19, Underline (Red):
Content: “rd: Basic Blackwell. “Introduction: Complex dynamics HAYLES, KATHERINE. i99ia. in literature and science,” in Chaos and order: Complex dy- namics in literature and science. Edited by Katherine Hayles, pp. I-36. Chicago: University of Chicago Pre”
Comment: rd: Basic Blackwell.
“Introduction: Complex dynamics HAYLES,
KATHERINE.
i99ia.
in literature and science,” in Chaos and order: Complex dy-
namics in literature and science. Edited by Katherine Hayles,
pp. I-36. Chicago: University of Chicago Pre

Page 19, Underline (Red):
Content: “I987. A thousand AND FtLIX GUATTARI. DELEUZE, GILLES, plateaus. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.”
Comment: I987. A thousand
AND FtLIX
GUATTARI.
DELEUZE,
GILLES,
plateaus. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Page 19, Underline (Red):
Content: “i962. Being and time. New York: MARTIN. HEIDEGGER, Harper and Row. . I977. The question concerning technology. New York: Harper and Row.”
Comment: i962. Being and time. New York:
MARTIN.
HEIDEGGER,
Harper and Row.
. I977. The question concerning technology. New York:
Harper and Row.

Page 19, Underline (Red):
Content: “FOUCAULT, New York: Harper Colophon Books. I973. The order of things. New York: Vintage Books. I975. The birth of the clinic. New York: Vintage Books.ig80. The history of sexuality. Vol. I. New York: Vin”
Comment: FOUCAULT,
New York: Harper Colophon Books.
I973. The order of things. New York: Vintage Books.
I975. The birth of the clinic. New York: Vintage Books.ig80. The history of sexuality. Vol. I. New York: Vin

Page 19, Underline (Red):
Content: “JENKINS, HENRY. i992. Textual poachers. New York: Routledge.”
Comment: JENKINS, HENRY. i992. Textual poachers. New York:
Routledge.

Page 20, Underline (Red):
Content: “BRYAN. i992. The social anthropology of PFAFFENBERGER, technology. Annual Review of Anthropology 2I:49I-5I6.”
Comment: BRYAN. i992. The social anthropology of
PFAFFENBERGER,
technology. Annual Review of Anthropology 2I:49I-5I6.

Page 20, Underline (Red):
Content: “KNORR-CETINA, K. D., AND M. J. MULKAY. Editors. I983. Sci- ence observed: Perspectives on the social study of science. “
Comment: KNORR-CETINA,
K. D., AND M. J. MULKAY. Editors. I983. Sci- ence observed: Perspectives on the social study of science.

Page 20, Underline (Red):
Content: “Science in action: How to follow scien- BRUNO. I987. LATOUR, tists and engineers through society. Milton Keynes: Open Uni- versity Press. I988. The pasteurization of France. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. . I993. We have never been modern. Translated by Cather- ine Porter. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf. [Ms]”
Comment: Science in action: How to follow scien-
BRUNO.
I987.
LATOUR,
tists and engineers through society. Milton Keynes: Open Uni-
versity Press.
I988. The pasteurization of France. Cambridge: Harvard
University Press.
. I993. We have never been modern. Translated by Cather-
ine Porter. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf. [Ms]

Page 20, Underline (Red):
Content: “I979. Laboratory WOOLGAR. AND STEVEN BRUNO, LATOUR, life: The social construction of scientific facts. Princeton: Princeton University Press.”
Comment: I979. Laboratory
WOOLGAR.
AND STEVEN
BRUNO,
LATOUR,
life: The social construction of scientific facts. Princeton:
Princeton University Press.

Page 20, Underline (Red):
Content: “Virtual reality. New York: Si- HOWARD. 199I. RHEINGOLD, mon and Schuster.”
Comment: Virtual reality. New York: Si-
HOWARD.
199I.
RHEINGOLD,
mon and Schuster.

Page 20, Underline (Red):
Content: “The woman in the body. Boston: Bea- EMILY. I987. MARTIN, con Press.”
Comment: The woman in the body. Boston: Bea-
EMILY.
I987.
MARTIN,
con Press.

Page 20, Underline (Red):
Content: “VARELA. I987. AND FRANCISCO HUMBERTO, MATURANA, The tree of knowledge. Boston: New Science Library/Sham-“
Comment: VARELA. I987.
AND FRANCISCO
HUMBERTO,
MATURANA,
The tree of knowledge. Boston: New Science Library/Sham-

Page 20, Underline (Red):
Content: “EAD, MARGARET. I968. “Cybernetics of cybernetics,” in Pur-posive systems. Edited by Heinz von Foerster, pp. I-I4. Ne”
Comment: EAD, MARGARET. I968. “Cybernetics of cybernetics,” in Pur-posive systems. Edited by Heinz von Foerster, pp. I-I4. Ne

Page 20, Underline (Red):
Content: “I993. Monocultures of the mind: Biodiver- SHIVA, VANDANA. sity, biotechnology, and “scientific” agriculture. London: Zed Books.”
Comment: I993. Monocultures of the mind: Biodiver-
SHIVA, VANDANA.
sity, biotechnology, and “scientific” agriculture. London: Zed
Books.

Page 21, Underline (Red):
Content: “I984. The second self: Computers and the hu- SHERRY. TURKLE, man spirit. New York: Simon and Schuster. Living in the MUDs: Multiplicity and identity in . I992. virtual reality. Paper presented to the panel “Cyborg Anthropol- ogy i” at the gIst annual meeting of the American Anthropo- logical Association, San Francisco, Calif., December 2-6.”
Comment: I984. The second self: Computers and the hu-
SHERRY.
TURKLE,
man spirit. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Living in the MUDs: Multiplicity and identity in
. I992.
virtual reality. Paper presented to the panel “Cyborg Anthropol-
ogy i” at the gIst annual meeting of the American Anthropo-
logical Association, San Francisco, Calif., December 2-6.

Page 21, Underline (Red):
Content: “”Through the looking glass,” in The art I990. WALKER, JOHN. of human-computer interface design. Edited by Brenda Laurel, pp. 439-48. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley.”
Comment: “Through the looking glass,” in The art
I990.
WALKER,
JOHN.
of human-computer interface design. Edited by Brenda Laurel,
pp. 439-48. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley.

Page 21, Underline (Red):
Content: “Upon opening the black box and I993a. LANGDON. WINNER, finding it empty: Social constructivism and the philosophy of technology. Science, Technology, and Human Values i8:362- 378. . I993b. If you liked chaos, you’ll love complexity. New York Times Book Review, February I4, p. I2.”
Comment: Upon opening the black box and
I993a.
LANGDON.
WINNER,
finding it empty: Social constructivism and the philosophy of
technology. Science, Technology, and Human Values i8:362-
378.
. I993b. If you liked chaos, you’ll love complexity. New
York Times Book Review, February I4, p. I2.

Page 21, Underline (Red):
Content: “WOLF, Berkeley: University of California Press. i988. Science: The very idea. London: Tav-STEVEN. WOOLGAR, istock. . i99i. The turn to technology in social studies of science. Science, Technology, and Human Values i6:20-50”
Comment: WOLF,
Berkeley: University of California Press.
i988. Science: The very idea. London: Tav-STEVEN.
WOOLGAR,
istock.
. i99i. The turn to technology in social studies of science. Science, Technology, and Human Values i6:20-50

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