Jones & Schieffelin – Talking Text and Talking Back

Talking Text and Talking Back: ‘‘My BFF Jill’’ from Boob Tube to YouTube GrahamM. Jones Bambi B. Schieffelin

by Graham M. Jones & Bambi B. Schieffelin

[2009. Jones, Graham M., and Bambi B. Schieffelin. “Talking Text and Talking Back: ‘My BFF Jill’ from Boob Tube to YouTube.” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 14 (4): 1050–79. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2009.01481.x. ]

Points & Quotes:

“In this article, we discuss these commercials as metalinguistic meditations and examine the further metalinguistic commentary their widespread circulation—in the media, on the Internet, and people’s talk—has occasioned. In particular, we examine these videos have elicited since migrating from television—the ‘‘boob tube’’—to YouTube, a website whose commenting feature has allowed texting aficionados to voice their metalinguistic views, at times in direct confrontation with language prescriptivists.” (1051)

“Most positive assessments of the commercials in the media and online emphasize how ‘‘funny’’ they are, leading us to analyze them here as instances of speech play” […]
Generally speaking, humor depends on the performative violation of expectations or conventions, often providing a publicly acceptable occasion for expressing latent tensions, frustrations, or fears (Beeman, 1981, 2000). In this sense, jokes often vehicle serious meanings or perform serious functions […]
On one hand, proponents of what Cameron (1995) calls ‘‘verbal hygiene’’ can point to the commercials as evidence of the danger teenage texting poses to Standard English. From this perspective, text-like speech is a kind of verbal contamination, resembling Mary Douglas’s (2002, pp. 44–5) famous description of dirt as ‘‘matter out of place.’’ […]
On the other hand, the positive reactions of young fans to the commercials suggest a different way of conceptualizing the same scenes of linguistic category confusion—in terms of Bakhtin’s notion of the carnivalesque. (Bakhtin 1984, p. 10)
(1052-1053)

The Commercials

“the commercials paint a somewhat equivocal picture. They imagine the texting craze as a source of verbal anarchy with the potential to radically transform language and undermine communication between parents and children. At the same time, they clearly delight in the generativity of texting conventions and the infectious new forms of speech play that texting enables.” (1058)

“The phrase ‘‘IDK, my BFF Jill?’’ achieved a kind of free-standing iconicity, circulating widely in young people’s talk. The availability of the commercials for viewing on video sharing sites such as YouTube encouraged open-ended, asynchronous, discussion about their form, content, and linguistic implications in online forums.” (1058)

Just as news programs … “decontextualized” and “recontextualized (Bauman & Briggs, 1990) materials from the ‘‘Beth Ann’’ ads to construct narratives about the evolving language of texting, other sources indicate that young people across the United States extracted and performed key phrases from the commercial in everyday communication, establishing different “relations of intertextuality” (Spitulnik, 1997, p. 162). In her study of the circulation of the reception of mass media in Zambia, Spitulnik explores the way “phrases and discourse styles are extracted from radio broadcasting then recycled and reanimated in everyday usage, outside of the contexts of radio listening.” Spitulnik focuses on the way “detachable” elements of media discourse provide iconic cultural reference points that accompany the formation of speech community. (1059)

YouTube

“Commercials recorded from television by individual fans have been a popular upload item, making advertising itself an object of what Henry Jenkins (2006, 2008) calls the new “participatory culture” of fandom.” […]
but it is in the written comments about the three commercials themselves where the most dynamic metalinguistic dialogue unfolds.” (1061)

“We consider the YouTube dialogues about the emergent language of texting especially significant given Herring’s assertion that “mainstream media commentators interpret new technologies and youth practices in normative, moral terms, a process that reinscribes youth as ‘other,’” (2008, p. 71) and that young people have proportionally”‘fewer rights and opportunities to participate in public discourse” (p. 76) about their own practices.” (1062)

“Through the examination of a recent convergence between advertising, technology, and slang, we explore a timeless relationship fundamental to human language: the nexus of poetic language and metalanguage. In his famous distinction between the six dimensions and corresponding functions of language, Jakobson (1985) defines a verbal message that calls attention to its own construction as poetic, and a verbal message about language itself as metalingual (i.e., metalinguistic). […]
The original AT&T commercials are brilliantly crafted artifacts of speech play that assemble elements of everyday language in highly artificial but eminently entertaining verbal performances. These performances, in turn, provide not only resources for further verbal play, but also an impetus for metalinguistic commentary and assessment. In short, we argue that there is a direct, if not causal, connection between the ads’ poetic deployment of texting language and the critical discussions about texting language they have occasioned.” (1074-1075)

“It is clear that young people are actively consuming and producing YouTube content. What is particularly impressive to us is the attentiveness to language, both as a medium for verbal play and as stylistic marker of group membership subject to careful scrutiny, evident in the dialogues around the commercials. This leads us to conclude that the verbal ingenuity associated with texting — and talking text — should be viewed not as evidence of linguistic decline, but rather in terms of the reflexive, metalinguistic, sophistication it necessarily presupposes and potentially promotes.” (1075)

Terms:

speech play— ‘‘the manipulation of elements and components of language in relation to one another, in relation to the social and cultural contexts of language use, and against the backdrop of other verbal possibilities in which it is not foregrounded.’’ (Sherzer 2002, p. 1)

Abstract:

Exploring the close relationship between poetic language and metalanguage, this article analyzes both a series of 2007-8 U.S. TV ads that humorously deploy the language of text messaging, and the subsequent debates about the linguistic status of texting that they occasioned. We explore the ambivalence of commercials that at once resonate with fears of messaging slang as a verbal contagion and luxuriate in the playful inversion of standard language hierarchies. The commercials were invoked by monologic mainstream media as evidence of language decay, but their circulation on YouTube invited dialogic metalinguistic discussions, in which young people and texting proponents could share the floor with adults and language prescriptivists. We examine some of the themes that emerge in the commentary YouTubers have posted about these ads, and discuss the style of that commentary as itself significant.

Annotation Summary for Talking Text and Talking Back

Page 1, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Talking Text and Talking Back: ‘‘My BFF Jill’’ fromBoob Tube to YouTube GrahamM. Jones Bambi B. Schieffelin Exploring the close relationship between poetic language and metalanguage, this article analyzes both a series of 2007-8 U.S. TV ads that humorously deploy the language of text messaging, and the subsequent debates about the linguistic status of texting that they occasioned. We explore the ambivalence of commercials that at once resonate with fears of messaging slang as a verbal contagion and luxuriate in the playful inversion of standard language hierarchies. The commercials were invoked by monologic mainstream media as evidence of language decay, but theircirculationonYouTubeinviteddialogic metalinguistic discussions, in which young people and texting proponents could share the floor with adults and language prescriptivists. We examine some of the themes that emerge in the commentary YouTubers have posted about these ads, and discuss the style of that commentary as itself significant.”

Page 1, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Introduction”

Page 1, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Imagine what would happen if young people began speaking exclusively in the manner in which they text messaged:”

Page 1, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “This is precisely the kind of linguistic pandemonium a recentseries of U.S. television commercials for AT&T Wireless depicts, dramatizing bothyoung texters’ verbal ingenuity and the potential of their speech play to disturb thesocial and linguistic conventions of everyday life.”

Page 1, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “In this article, we discuss thesecommercials as metalinguistic meditations and examine the further metalinguisticcommentary their widespread circulation—in the media, on the Internet, and in 1050Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 14 (2009) 1050–1079 © 2009 International Communication Association”

Page 1, Underline (Blue):
Content: “In this article, we discuss these commercials as metalinguistic meditations and examine the further metalinguistic commentary their widespread circulation—in the media, on the Internet, and in”

Page 2, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “people’s talk—has occasioned.1”

Page 2, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” In particular, we examine the reaction these videoshave elicited since migrating from television—the ‘‘boob tube’’ —to YouTube, awebsite whose commenting feature has allowed texting aficionados to voice theirmetalinguistic views, at times in direct confrontation with language prescriptivists. “

Page 2, Underline (Blue):
Content: “people’s talk—has occasioned.1 In particular, we examine the reaction these videos have elicited since migrating from television—the ‘‘boob tube’’ —to YouTube, a website whose commenting feature has allowed texting aficionados to voice their metalinguistic views, at times in direct confrontation with language prescriptivists.”

Page 2, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Background”

Page 2, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “United States, as elsewhere, cell phones have become anintegral part of adolescent sociality, but not only as telephonic tools.”

Page 2, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” In addition to creative uses of punctuation (e.g., emoticons), text messaging’smost salient verbal features are its conventions of abbreviation: initialism(the use ofinitial letters to stand for entire words, like lol for laughing out loud); the omissionof nonessential letters (especially vowels, like lv for love); and the substitution ofhomophones (like b4forbefore). The distinctive style of texting is, in part, a responsetotechnical exigencies, keeping messages under the 160-character limit (Crystal, 2008,pp. 5-6), reducing the number of keystrokes, and enabling texters to approximate thetemporality of conversational turn-taking (Caron&Caronia, 2007, p. 189).”

Page 2, Underline (Red):
Content: “(Crystal, 2008, pp. 5-6), (Caron&Caronia, 2007, p. 189).”

Page 2, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” However,this style is also a formof speech play that creatively exploits the expressive and ludicpotential of verbal codes (Crystal, 2008, pp. 71–74), and an expressive symbol ofpeer-group affiliation (Ling, 2008, pp. 131–132). “

Page 2, Underline (Red):
Content: “(Crystal, 2008, pp. 71–74), Ling, 2008, pp. 131–132).”

Page 2, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “In recent years, local and national news sources have sounded an alarm about the potentially deleterious effects of both text and instant messaging on young people’s spoken and written language, as Herring (2008) and Thurlow (2006, 2007) describe.”

Page 2, Underline (Red):
Content: ” Thurlow (2006, 2007 Herring (2008)”

Page 3, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Acommonquestionaboutthelanguageofmessagingconcernsitsabilitytocross over into speech. ‘‘Are abbreviations or acronyms fromelectronically-mediatedcommunication appearing in spoken language?’’ Baron (2008, p. 179) asks. Similarly,Crystal (2008, p. 33) ponders ‘‘how much impact texting will have on speech.’’ Thepotential influence of texting on talk is the issue at the heart of the trilogy of AT&Tcommercials we analyze.2 “

Page 3, Underline (Red):
Content: “Baron (2008, p. 179) Crystal (2008, p. 33)”

Page 3, Note (Orange):
Prophetic AF

Page 3, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “While the first two commercials in thecampaign focus on parent-child conflicts over skyrocketing phone bills, their culturalsuccess (as measured by their subsequent circulation) has more to do with theparodic treatment of resonant linguistic tensions. In the third commercial, the explicit focus shifts from the monetary to the linguistic costs of texting, with the mother acknowledging her failure to raise her daughter as a competent English speaker.”

Page 3, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “While often dismissed as culturally inconsequential, television commercials are, in the words of Dan Lefkowitz (2003, p. 76), ‘‘a highly elaborated domain of aesthetic practice’’ that rank ‘‘among the most complex of semiotic signs we encounter in modern life, combining visual images, written and spoken language, dramatized narratives, richly intertextual symbols, double and triple entendres, deeply poetic verbal structuring, and other semiotic material.’’”

Page 3, Underline (Red):
Content: “Dan Lefkowitz (2003, p. 76),”

Page 4, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Most positive assessments of the commercials in the media and online emphasize how ‘‘funny’’ they are, leading us to analyze them here as instances of speech play. According to Sherzer (2002, p. 1), speech play is ‘‘the manipulation of elements and components of language in relation to one another, in relation to the social and cultural contexts of language use, and against the backdrop of other verbal possibilities in which it is not foregrounded.’’ ‘‘speech play provides implicit and explicit metacommentary …on systems and structure, social and cultural as well as interactional and sociolinguistic.’’”

Page 4, Underline (Blue):
Content: “Most positive assessments of the commercials in the media and online emphasize how ‘‘funny’’ they are, leading us to analyze them here as instances of speech play.”

Page 4, Underline (Red):
Content: ” Sherzer (2002, p. 1)”

Page 4, Highlight (Yellow):
Content: “speech play”

Page 4, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Generally speaking, humor depends on the performative violationof expectations or conventions, often providing a publiclyacceptableoccasionforexpressinglatent tensions, frustrations, or fears (Beeman, 1981, 2000).”

Page 4, Underline (Blue):
Content: “humor depends on the performative violationof expectations or conventions, In this sense, jokes often vehicle serious meanings or perform serious functions.”

Page 4, Underline (Red):
Content: “(Beeman, 1981, 2000).”

Page 4, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “In this sense, jokes often vehicle serious meanings or perform serious functions.”

Page 4, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “proponents of what Cameron (1995) calls ‘‘verbal hygiene’’ can point to the commercials as evidence of the danger teenage texting poses to Standard English. Fromthis perspective, text-like speech is a kind of verbal contamination, resembling Mary Douglas’s (2002, pp. 44–5) famous description”

Page 4, Underline (Blue):
Content: “proponents of what Cameron (1995) calls ‘‘verbalhygiene’’ can point to the commercials as evidence of the danger teenage textingposes to Standard English. Fromthis perspective, text-like speech is a kind of verbalcontamination, resembling “

Page 4, Underline (Blue):
Content: “famous description”

Page 4, Underline (Blue):
Content: “Mary Douglas’s (2002, pp. 44–5) famous”

Page 4, Underline (Red):
Content: “Mary Douglas’s (2002, pp. 44–5)”

Page 5, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “of dirt as ‘‘matter out of place.’’ Douglas writes: ‘‘Dirt is the by-product of a systematic ordering and classification of matter, in so far as ordering involves rejecting inappropriate elements …[O]ur pollution behaviour is the reaction which condemns any object or idea likely to confuse or contradict cherished classifications.’’”

Page 5, Highlight (Yellow):
Content: “dirt”

Page 5, Underline (Blue):
Content: “‘‘matter out of place.’’ “

Page 5, Underline (Blue):
Content: “of dirt as ‘‘matter out of place.’’ “

Page 5, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “On the other hand, the positive reactions of young fans to thecommercials suggest a different way of conceptualizing the same scenes of linguisticcategory confusion—in terms of Bakhtin’s notion of the carnivalesque.ForBakhtin(1984, p. 10), ‘‘the temporary suspension, both ideal and real, of hierarchical rankcreated during carnival time a special type of communication impossible in everydaylife …[liberated] from norms of etiquette and decency imposed at other times.’’He associates this kind of speech with the ‘‘world inside out’’ spirit of carnival, and‘‘the sense of gay relativity of prevailing truths and authorities’’ (p. 11).”

Page 5, Underline (Blue):
Content: “On the other hand, the positive reactions of young fans to thecommercials suggest a different way of conceptualizing the same scenes of linguisticcategory confusion—in terms of Bakhtin’s notion of the carnivalesque.”

Page 5, Highlight (Yellow):
Content: ” carnivalesque.”

Page 5, Underline (Red):
Content: “Bakhtin’s (1984, p. 10), (p. 11).”

Page 5, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “We note that the humor of these commercials also has a subtle but significant gender component. Since the 1940s, there has been a ‘‘convergence of telephony and teenage girlhood in [American] popular culture’’ (Kearney, 2005, p. 571), driven at least in part by the gendered messages of telecommunications advertisements. In the post-WWII era of expanding telephone access, advertisements and popular dramatization enacted tensions between fathers who policed domestic telephone use and verbal behavior, and their daughters whose ‘‘excessive use of the phone was discursively represented as a disease: telephonitis’’ (Kearney, 2005, p. 586)—a representation that fits into broader perceptions of females as ‘‘talking too much’’ (Holmes, 1998).”

Page 6, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The Commercials”

Page 6, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The first AT&T commercial, BFF Jill,airedfromApril10,2007toJune3,2007”

Page 6, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Beth Ann comes into the room, her eyes glued to a cell phone, audibly punchingkeys. ‘‘W-U?’’ she asks casually; a subtitle provides the translation of the messaginginitialism: ‘‘What’s up?’’ The mother, clearly exasperated, responds, ‘‘Your cell phonebill is what’s up. All this texting.’’ ‘‘O-M-G! I-N-B-D [Subtitle: Oh my gosh! It’sno big deal],’’ Beth Ann responds, her tone rising defensively. ‘‘It is abigdeal,’’Mom retorts. ‘‘Who are you texting 50 times a day?’’ Beth Ann visibly composesherself before responding, ‘‘I-D-K, my B-F-F Jill? [Subtitle: I don’t know, my bestfriend forever, Jill.].’’ “

Page 6, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “‘‘T-I-S-N-F! [Subtitle: This is so not fair!].’’ “

Page 6, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “‘‘Me paying this bill —that’s what’s …S …N …F!’’ “

Page 6, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “‘‘Now too much texting is N-B-D. Cingular brings you unlimited texting for five dollars more a month…’’”

Page 7, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “At first, themother appears adept at this kind of crosstalk, successfully decoding her daughter’sexotic utterances. Her clumsy attempt to replicate an utterance with a slightly alteredabbreviation (TISNF→SNF), however, reveals her to be an incompetent text-talker.BFF Jill depicts a world out of balance: “

Page 9, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Ultimately, the commercials paint a somewhat equivocal picture. They imaginethe texting craze as a source of verbal anarchy withthe potential toradically transformlanguage and undermine communication between parents and children. At the sametime, they clearly delight in the generativity of texting conventions and the infectiousnew forms of speech play that texting enables. “

Page 9, Underline (Blue):
Content: “the commercials paint a somewhat equivocal picture. They imagine the texting craze as a source of verbal anarchy withthe potential toradically transform language and undermine communication between parents and children. At the same time, they clearly delight in the generativity of texting conventions and the infectious new forms of speech play that texting enables.”

Page 9, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Columnists identifyingwith the mother’s plight, described the struggles over cell phone bills in their ownhouseholds (Brodnar, 2007). The phrase ‘‘IDK, my BFF Jill?’’ achieved a kind offree-standing iconicity, circulating widelyinyoungpeople’stalk.Theavailabilityofthe commercials for viewing on video sharing sites such as YouTube encouragedopen-ended, asynchronous, discussion about their form, content, and linguisticimplications in online forums. “

Page 9, Underline (Blue):
Content: “widelyinyoungpeople’stalk.Theavailabilityof the commercials for viewing on video sharing sites such as YouTube encouraged open-ended, asynchronous, discussion about their form, content, and linguistic implications in online forums.”

Page 10, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “We find that the relatively anonymous internet discussion forums, such as the one provided by YouTube’s commenting feature, have given young proponents of texting achancetopublicizetheirownopinionsabouttextingasalinguisticphenomenon and to confront people with competing views in ways that merit further attention.”

Page 10, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Multiple Publics, Multiple Receptions”

Page 10, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Good Morning America begins with host Chris Cuomo cautioning, ‘‘Parents beware when your teenager tap, tap, taps away. They’re not just getting sore thumbs. They could be draining your bank account as well. And what in the world are they saying to each other anyway when they’re tapping all these acronyms? Who knows what they mean? They have a whole newlanguage that’s leaving Momand Dad in the dark.’’”

Page 10, Underline (Blue):
Content: “‘‘secret lingo’’ of texting.4 Just as news programs like this ‘‘decontextualized’’ and ‘‘recontextualized’’ (Bauman & Briggs, 1990) materials fromthe ‘‘Beth Ann’’ ads to construct narratives about the evolving language of texting, other sources indicate that young people across the United States extracted and performed key phrases from the commercial in everyday communication, establishing different ‘‘relations of intertextuality’’ (Spitulnik, 1997, p. 162).”

Page 10, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Just as news programs like this ‘‘decontextualized’’ and ‘‘recontextualized’’ (Bauman & Briggs, 1990) materials fromthe ‘‘Beth Ann’’ ads to construct narratives about the evolving language of texting, other sources indicate that young people across the United States extracted and performed key phrases from the commercial in everyday communication, establishing different ‘‘relations of intertextuality’’ (Spitulnik, 1997, p. 162).”

Page 10, Underline (Red):
Content: “(Bauman & Briggs, 1990) (Spitulnik, 1997, p. 162).”

Page 10, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “(Spitulnik, 1997, p. 162). In her study of the circulation of the reception of mass media in Zambia, Spitulnik explores the way ‘‘phrases and discourse styles are extracted from radio broadcasting then recycled and reanimated in everyday usage, outside of the contexts of radio listening.’’ Spitulnik focuses on the way ‘‘detachable’’ elements of media discourse provide iconic cultural reference points that accompany the formation of speech community. her study of the circulation of the reception of mass media in Zambia, Spitulnik explores the way ‘‘phrases and discourse styles are extracted from radio broadcasting then recycled and reanimated in everyday usage, outside of the contexts of radio listening.’’ Spitulnik focuses on the way ‘‘detachable’’ elements of media discourse provide iconic cultural reference points that accompany the formation of speech community.”

Page 10, Underline (Magenta):
Content: “In her study of the circulation of the reception of mass media in Zambia, Spitulnik explores the way ‘‘phrases and discourse styles are extracted from radio broadcasting then recycled and reanimated in everyday usage, outside of the contexts of radio listening.’’ Spitulnik focuses on the way ‘‘detachable’’ elements of media discourse provide iconic cultural reference points that accompany the formation of speech community.”

Page 10, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “meme—‘‘a popular term for”

Page 10, Highlight (Yellow):
Content: ” meme”

Page 10, Underline (Magenta):
Content: “meme—‘‘a popular term for”

Page 11, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “describing the rapid uptake and spread of a particular idea presented as a written text, image, language ‘move,’ or some other unit of cultural ‘stuff’’’ (Knobel &Lankshear, 2007, p. 202).”

Page 11, Underline (Magenta):
Content: “describing the rapid uptake and spread of a particular idea presented as a written text, image, language ‘move,’ or some other unit of cultural ‘stuff’’’ (Knobel &Lankshear, 2007, p. 202).”

Page 11, Underline (Red):
Content: “(Knobel &Lankshear, 2007, p. 202).”

Page 11, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “YouTube Circulation”

Page 11, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The life of television commercials is no longer limited to the time they air on television. Video-sharing Internet venues such as YouTube have provided additional opportunities for extending the media life of these visual and verbal artifacts, giving themadditional routes for entering into the public and popular circulation of ideas, images and talk.”

Page 12, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Commercials recorded from television by individual fans have been a popular upload item, making advertising itself an object of what Henry Jenkins (2006, 2008) calls the new‘‘participatory culture’’ of fandom.”

Page 12, Underline (Magenta):
Content: “Commercials recorded from television by individual fans have been a popular upload item, making advertising itself an object of what Henry Jenkins (2006, 2008) calls the new‘‘participatory culture’’ of fandom.”

Page 12, Underline (Red):
Content: “Henry Jenkins (2006, 2008)”

Page 12, Highlight (Yellow):
Content: “new‘‘participatory culture’’”

Page 12, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “YouTube displays several indicators of the popularity of each video, providing the number of ‘‘hits’’ each video receives, as well as the number of times a video is ‘‘favorited’’ by registered YouTube viewers.”

Page 12, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “video-recorded reactions attest to the commercials’ cultural iconicity, but”

Page 12, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “it is in the written comments about the three commercials themselves where the most dynamic metalinguistic dialogue unfolds.”

Page 12, Underline (Blue):
Content: “it is in the written comments about the three commercials themselves where the most dynamic metalinguistic dialogue unfolds.”

Page 13, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “While most commentators responded directly to something in the commercials, asmaller,butstillsignificantnumberrespond to each other’s comments, sometimes creating a sustained (but asynchronous) discussion of a particular topic, with two or more participants.”

Page 13, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” Research on online viewer comments to YouTube videos is still in its earlyphases (Lange, 2007a). While some view this internet forumas having the potentialto provide a positive multimedia participatory environment (O’Donnell et al., 2008),others claimthat YouTube’s comment forums are the most ‘‘loud’’ and ‘‘dumb’’ cor-ner of the Internet.10″

Page 13, Underline (Magenta):
Content: “Research on online viewer comments to YouTube videos is still in its early phases (Lange, 2007a). While some view this internet forumas having the potential to provide a positive multimedia participatory environment (O’Donnell et al., 2008), others claimthat YouTube’s comment forums are the most ‘‘loud’’ and ‘‘dumb’’ cor- ner of the Internet.10”

Page 13, Underline (Red):
Content: “(O’Donnell et al., 2008), (Lange, 2007a).”

Page 13, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “We consider the YouTube dialogues about the emergent language of texting especially significant given Herring’s assertion that ‘‘mainstream media commenta- tors interpret new technologies and youth practices in normative, moral terms, a process that reinscribes youth as ‘other,’’’ (2008, p. 71) and that young people have proportionally ‘‘fewer rights and opportunities to participate in public discourse’’ (p. 76) about their own practices.”

Page 13, Underline (Red):
Content: “(2008, p. 71) (p. 76) Herring’s”

Page 13, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Unlike graffiti, YouTube comments tend to retain a high degree of”

Page 14, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “topical coherence, if not a cumulative progression or structure of responsive turn-taking. The redundancy of the comments suggests that posters do not read more thanthe most recent comments, as the same queries and opinions recur. “

Page 14, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “In the following sections, we consider each comment set in turn, highlightingnotable metalinguistic and metadiscursive features, and looking at ways users discussthe poetic, metapragmatic, sociolinguistic, and ideological dimensions of texting as aspecialized register. Taken together, the comments offer an intriguing view into howparticular linguistic forms elicit, circulate and come to constitute a set of iconic socialmeanings in terms of who uses and approves of them, who does not, and why.”

Page 14, Underline (Blue):
Content: “In the following sections, we consider each comment set in turn, highlighting notable metalinguistic and metadiscursive features, and looking at ways users discuss the poetic, metapragmatic, sociolinguistic, and ideological dimensions of texting as a specialized register. Taken together, the comments offer an intriguing view into how particular linguistic forms elicit, circulate and come to constitute a set of iconic social meanings in terms of who uses and approves of them, who does not, and why.”

Page 14, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “BFF Jill: The Initial Novelty”

Page 15, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Participants usedthe commenting feature toexpress their ownorientationtoward the language of the commercial and to address metalinguistic questions it raised. Some boasted they could understand the dialogue without the subtitles because of their owntexting expertise, while others voiced mystification.”

Page 15, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “cutie463 this is so funny, wht ar these things called like btw,omg,lol wht are they called. SredniDole they are called ‘‘if my kids talk like this in verbal conversation they are getting smacked’’ mountaindew3 they are called acronyms”

Page 16, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “diyth What is NBD??? they say that at the end ‘‘ Now texting is NBD’’ wtf is that lol haley4556 NBD=No big deal and my name is Jill and really i no Megan ando1135 no big deal WoahhxSweetx3 nbd is not a bad deal LambLeg87 Ithink‘‘nobigdeal’’wouldmakemoresense;) d23mer are you an idiot? it is typed out in the commercial.”

Page 18, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “While we acknowledge that the personal information Tubers post may be unreliable, the shifting styles of users like ScienceNerd11 and ometta7,indicateashared understanding of writing styles as indexically related to both social identities and particular discursive activities (serious debate, aggressive insults, etc.).”

Page 18, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “KnightProductionsYT that girl is so 1337 and the momis a /\/ub”

Page 19, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Dream210x59 IMtalk is in ….speakingoutthewords=OUT! Lkr721993 its not called IMtalk mainstreamloser. go fuck yourself with your stupid shit prep friends oohhholax33 wow jeez calmdown..”

Page 20, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Some users report using the phrase ‘‘IDK, my BFF Jill?’’ when they don’t knowanswers on tests, or in spoken responses to teachers: illegallynotblonde today my spanish teacher asked me a question and i was all like ‘‘idk my bff jill??’’nshegavemeadetention.cc The reports of recontextualizing ‘‘IDK, my BFF Jill?’’ in different interactionalsettings point to the expressive and pragmatic productivity of this kind of detach-able discourse—even if the immediate consequences prove unpleasant, as in theabove example. “

Page 20, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “BFF Rose: A Meme Ages Gracefully?”

Page 22, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “sweiland75 these commercials encourage illiteracy mettsxav uencourageilliteracy Noodlesis You BOTHencourage illiteracy. Punctuation and grammar, they’re your friends! mettsxav no u both encourage illiteracy what the hell why would you end a sentence with an explanation point if its not an exciting sentence Noodlesis Because I thought it was interesting. Also, It’s not an ‘‘explanaition’’ point. And you didn’t use any punctuation. I can’t take your comment seriously.”

Page 22, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “historymaker121 ur momencourages illiteracy”

Page 23, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “IDK Scrabble: Testing the Rules”

Page 24, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “jaq69 It’s rofl not rotfl …fucking retards. goldfndr never heard rotfl without the mao … hold the mao? wu w/dat?”

Page 24, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “hold the mao? wu w/dat?hayguyz rotfl “

Page 25, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Inregisteringtheir verbal preferences andpolicingothers’ choices andlinguistic rationalizations, these metalinguistic arguments reinforce the social meaning of variant forms (Schieffelin &Doucet 1998).”

Page 25, Underline (Red):
Content: “(Schieffelin &Doucet 1998).”

Page 25, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Conclusion”

Page 25, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Popular advertisements come and go, communications technologies obsolesce, andyouth language rapidly evolves. Through the examination of a recent convergencebetween advertising, technology, and slang, we explore a timeless relationshipfundamental to human language: the nexus of poetic language and metalanguage.”

Page 25, Underline (Blue):
Content: “Through the examination of a recent convergence between advertising, technology, and slang, we explore a timeless relationship fundamental to human language: the nexus of poetic language and metalanguage.”

Page 25, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “In his famous distinction between the six dimensions and corresponding functions of language, Jakobson (1985) defines a verbal message that calls attention to its own construction as poetic,andaverbalmessageaboutlanguageitselfasmetalingual (i.e., metalinguistic).”

Page 25, Underline (Blue):
Content: “In his famous distinction between the six dimensions and corresponding functions of language, Jakobson (1985) defines a verbal message that calls attention to its own construction as poetic,andaverbalmessageaboutlanguageitselfasmetalingual (i.e., metalinguistic).”

Page 25, Underline (Red):
Content: “Jakobson (1985”

Page 25, Highlight (Yellow):
Content: ” metalinguistic) metalingual metalingual”

Page 25, Highlight (Yellow):
Content: ” poetic,”

Page 25, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” While Jakobson discusses these functions separately, others haveseen that they not only resemble, but also complement each other (Cameron 2004:314). Linking the reflexivity of poetic language to the reflexivity of metalanguage,Lucy (1993: 21) writes that ‘‘verbal art is a formof creative metalinguistic play withthe power to affect social reality.’’ For us, the ‘‘IDK, my BFF Jill’’ phenomenonin American popular culture offers a powerful illustration of this relationship. Theoriginal AT&Tcommercials arebrilliantlycraftedartifacts of speechplaythat assembleelements of everyday language in highly artificial but eminently entertaining verbalperformances.13 These performances, in turn, provide not only resources for further”

Page 25, Underline (Red):
Content: “(Cameron 2004: 314). Lucy (1993: 21)”

Page 25, Underline (Blue):
Content: “The original AT&Tcommercials arebrilliantlycraftedartifacts of speechplaythat assemble elements of everyday language in highly artificial but eminently entertaining verbal performances.13 These performances, in turn, provide not only resources for further”

Page 26, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “verbal play, but also an impetus for metalinguistic commentary and assessment. Inshort, we argue that there is a direct, if not causal, connection between the ads’ poeticdeployment of texting language and the critical discussions about texting languagethey have occasioned. “

Page 26, Underline (Blue):
Content: “verbal play, but also an impetus for metalinguistic commentary and assessment. In short, we argue that there is a direct, if not causal, connection between the ads’ poetic deployment of texting language and the critical discussions about texting language they have occasioned.”

Page 26, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” Fromthe dozens ofvideoresponses made by tweens andteens, tothe hundreds of writtencomments fromusers self-identifying as adolescents and providing firsthand accounts of adolescentlife, it is clear that young people are actively consuming and producing YouTubecontent. What is particularly impressive to us is the attentiveness to language, bothas a mediumfor verbal play and as stylistic marker of group membership subject tocareful scrutiny, evident in the dialogues around the commercials. This leads us toconclude that the verbal ingenuity associatedwithtexting—andtalking text—shouldbe viewed not as evidence of linguistic decline, but rather in terms of the reflexive,metalinguistic, sophistication it necessarily presupposes and potentially promotes.”

Page 26, Underline (Blue):
Content: “This leads us to conclude that the verbal ingenuity associatedwithtexting—andtalking text—should be viewed not as evidence of linguistic decline, but rather in terms of the reflexive, metalinguistic, sophistication it necessarily presupposes and potentially promotes. it is clear that young people are actively consuming and producing YouTubecontent. What is particularly impressive to us is the attentiveness to language, bothas a mediumfor verbal play and as stylistic marker of group membership subject tocareful scrutiny, evident in the dialogues around the commercials. Th”

Page 27, Underline (Red):
Content: “Bakhtin, M. (1984). Rabelais and his world. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Bauman, R., &Briggs, C. (1990). Poetics and performance as critical perspectives on language and social life. Annual Review of Anthropology, 19,59–88.”

Page 28, Underline (Red):
Content: “Douglas, M. (2002). Purity and danger [1966]. New York: Routledge. Gell, A. (1998). Art and agency: An anthropological theory.NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress. Herring, S. (2008). Questioning the generational divide: Technological exoticismand adultconstructions of online youth identity. In D. Buckingham(Ed.), Youth, identity, and digital Media (pp. 71–92). Cambridge, MA: MIT University Press. Jakobson, R. (1985). Closing statement: Linguistics and poetics [1960]. In R. Innis (Ed.), Semiotics: An introductory anthology (pp. 147–175). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.”

Page 28, Underline (Red):
Content: “Jenkins, H. (2006). Fans, bloggers, and gamers: Exploring participatory culture.NewYork:New York University Press. Jenkins, H. (2008). Convergence culture: Where old and new media collide.NewYork:New York University Press.”

Page 28, Underline (Red):
Content: “Knobel, M., &Lankshear, C. (2007). Online memes, affinities, and cultural production. In M. Knobel &C. Lankshear (Eds.), ANewLiteraciesSampler(pp. 199–227). New York: Peter Lang.”

Page 28, Underline (Red):
Content: “Knobel, M., &Lankshear, C. (2008). Remix: The art and craft of endless hybridization. Journal of Adolescent &Adult Literacy, 52,22–33.”

Page 29, Underline (Red):
Content: “Lange, P. (2007a). Searching for the ‘You’ in ‘YouTube’: An analysis of online response ability. Proceedings of the Ethnographic Praxis in Industry Conference 2007 (pp. 31–45),Berkeley, CA.: University of California Press. http://www.epic2007.com/Draft-EPIC2007-Proceedings.pdf. Lange, P. ((2007b). March). Commenting on comments: Investigating responses to antagonismon YouTube. Paper presented at the Society for Applied Anthropology Conference, Tampa, FL. Lange, P. (2008). Publicly private and privately public: Social networking on YouTube. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13,361–380.”

Page 29, Underline (Red):
Content: “Lucy, J. (1993). Reflexive language and the human disciplines. In J. Lucy (Ed.), Reflexivelanguage: reported speech and metapragmatics (pp. 9–32). New York: Cambridge University Press.”

Page 29, Underline (Red):
Content: “O’Donnell, S., Gibson, K., Milliken, M., &Singer, J. (2008). Reacting to YouTube videos: Exploring differences among user groups. Proceedings of the International Communication Assoc Annual Conference (ICA 2008) Montreal, Quebec. May 22–26. http://iit-iti.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/iit-publications-iti/docs/NRC-50361.pdf. Spitulnik, D. (1996). The social construction of media discourse and the mediation of communities. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, 6,161–87.”

Page 29, Underline (Red):
Content: Sherzer, J. (2002). Speech play and verbal art. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Page 30, Underline (Red):
Content: “Thurlow, C., &Poff, M. (in press). The language of text messaging. In S. Herring, D. Stein, &T. Virtanen (Eds.), Handbook of the Pragmatics of CMC.NewYork:MoutondeGruyter.”

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