Foucault—Technologies of the Self

Technologies of the Self

by Michel Foucault

[Foucault, Michel. 1988. Technologies of the Self: A Seminar with Michel Foucault. Edited by Luther H. Martin, Huck Gutman, and Patrick H. Hutton. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.]

I

  • “Max Weber posed the question: If one wants to behave rationally and regulate one’s action according to true principles, what part of one’s self should one renounce? What is the ascetic price of reason? To what kind of asceticism should one submit? […]
  • I posed the opposite question: How have certain kinds of interdictions required the price of certain kinds of knowledge about oneself? What must one know about oneself in order to be willing to renounce anything?” […]
  • “Thus I arrived at the hermeneutics of technologies of the self in pagan and early Christian practice” (17).

Four major types of “technologies” (truth games)

  1. technologies of production—manipulation of things
  2. technologies of sign systems—signs, symbols
  3. technologies of power—policing individuals, politics
  4. technologies of the self—transformative operations on bodies, thoughts, souls
    • tech of power + tech of self = domination
    • “This contact between the technologies of domination of others and those of the self I call governmentality” (19).

THE DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES OF THE SELF

“I wish to sketch out the development of the hermeneutics of the self in two different contexts which are historically contiguous:

  1. Greco-Roman philosophy in the first two centuries A.D. of the early Roman Empire and
  2. Christian spirituality and the monastic principles developed in the fourth and fifth centuries of the late Roman Empire” (19, bullets added).

epimelesthai sautou

  • to take care of yourself
    • the concern with self
    • to be concerned, to take care of yourself
  • “When one is asked “What is the most important moral principle in ancient philosophy?” the immediate answer is not “Take care of oneself” but the Delphic principle, gnothi sauton (“Know yourself”)” (19).
  • “In Greek and Roman texts, the injunction of having to know yourself was always associated with the other principle of having to take care of yourself” (20).
    • you have to deal with your self before you can know yourself (go to an oracle)

“To summarize: There has been an inversion between the hierarchy of the two principles of antiquity, “Take care of yourself” and “Know thyself.” In Greco-Roman culture knowledge of oneself appeared as the consequence of taking care of yourself. In the modern world, knowledge of oneself constitutes the fundamental principle” (22).

II

ALCIBIADES 

Analyzing care of the self in three aspects:

  1. “How is this question introduced into the dialogue? What are the reasons Alcibiades and Socrates are brought to the notion of taking care of one’s self? (23).
    • They make a pact-Alcibiades will submit to his lover, Socrates, not in a physical but in a spiritual sense. The intersection of political ambition and philosophical love is “taking care of oneself” (24).
      • I’m honestly not sure I get this leap
  2. “In that relationship, why should Alcibiades be concerned with himself, and why is Socrates concerned with that concern of Alcibiades?”
    • “Concern for self always refers to an active political and erotic state.”
      • Again, not sure
  3. “The rest of the text is devoted to an analysis of this notion of epimelesthai, “taking pains with oneself.” It is divided into two questions:
    1. What is this self of which one has to take care, and of what docs that care consist?” [para]
      1.  “First, what is the self? Self is a reflexive pronoun, and it has two meanings. Auto means “the same,” but it also conveys the notion of identity. The latter meaning shifts the question from “What is this self?” to “What is the plateau on which I shall find my identity?” […]
      2. ” When you take care of the body, you don’t take care of the self. The selfis not clothing, tools, or possessions. It is to be found in the principle which uses these tools, a principle not of the body but of the soul” […]
    2. “The second question is: How must we take care of this principle of activity, the soul? Of what does this care consist? One must know of what the soul consists.” […]
      1. “The effort of the soul to know itself is the principle on which just political action can be founded, and Alcibiades will be a good politician insofar as he contemplates his soul in the divine element” (25).
  • Plato’s text sets out eternal problems:
    1. “First, there is the problem of the relation between being occupied with oneself and political activity.” […]
    2. “Second, there is the problem of the relationship between being occupied with oneself and pedagogy.” […]
    3. “Third, there is the problem of the relationship between concern for oneself and the knowledge of oneself.” […]
    4. “Fourth, there is the problem of the relationship between the care of self and philosophical love, or the relation to a master” (26).
  • “This theme of taking care of oneself was not abstract advice but a widespread activity, a network of obligations and services to the soul” (26-27).
    • oral culture—Socrates letters
    • written culture—Augustin’s Confessions
      • also Marcus Aurelius’s letter to his lover, Fronto (about what he did that day)
    • The letter is the transcription of that examination of conscience. It stresses what you did, not what you thought. That is the difference between practice in the Hellenistic and imperial periods and later monastic practice. In Seneca too there are only deeds, not thoughts. But it does prefigure Christian confession” (30).

III

“In my discussion of Plato’s Alcibiades, I have isolated three major themes:

  1. first, the relation between care for oneself and care for the political life;
  2. second, the relation between taking care of the self and defective education; and
  3. third, the relation between taking care of oneself and knowing oneself” (30, bullets added).
  • in the Imperial Period, end of dialogue—beginning of silent listening
  • For Plato—”themes of contemplation of self and self care are related dialectically through dialogue” […]
  • “in the imperial period we have the themes of, on one side, the obligation of listening to truth and, on the other side, of looking and listening to the self for the truth within” (32-33).
    • “For Seneca it isn’t a question of discovering truth in the subject but of remembering truth, recovering a truth which has been forgotten. […]
    • The subject constitutes the intersection between acts which have to be regulated and rules for what ought to be done. This is quite different from the Platonic conception and from the Christian conception of conscience” (34).

IV

STOIC TECHNIQUES OF SELF

  1. “letters to friends and disclosure of self;
  2. examination of self and conscience, including a review of what was done, of what should have been done, and comparison of the two.
  3. Now I want to consider the third Stoic technique, askesis, not a disclosure of the secret self but a remembering.”
    1. “For Plato, one must discover the truth that is within one. For the Stoics, truth is not in oneself but in the logoi, the teaching of the teachers. One memorizes what one has heard, converting the statements one hears into rules of conduct. The subjectivization of truth is the aim of these techniques” (34-35, bullets and bold added)
    2. we assimilate truth, we do not master it.
  • Melete (premeditatio mallorum)—imagining the worst case scenario and experiencing it (virtually!)
  • Gymnasia—making up a challenge to actually experience (abstinence, fasting, etc).

V

EARLY CHRISTIANITY

  • In transition form pagan to Christian belief, the church cooked up Illumination—the disclosure of the self.
  • exomologesis – recognition of fact – public recognition of faith
    • Penitance was at first a status – not an act or a ritual
    • “To prove suffering, to show shame, to make visible humility and exhibit modesty—these are the main features of punishment. Penitence in early Christianity is a way of life acted out at all times by accepting the obligation to disclose oneself” (42).
    • rub out sin and restore purity – show sinner as he is – revealing while rubbing out
    • how did early Christians explain this paradox to themselves:
      • medical: show one’s wounds in order to be cured
      • trinbunal: judgement – confession of faults
      • death: martyrdom, preference for death over abandonment of faith – refusal of the self – a break with one’s past identity, a new self.  revelation = destruction
  • “The difference between the Stoic and Christian traditions is that in the Stoic tradition examination of self, judgment, and discipline show the way to self-knowledge by superimposing truthabout self through memory, that is, by memorizing the rules. In exomologesis, the penitent superimposes truth about self by violent rupture and dissociation. It is important to emphasize that this exomologesis is not verbal. It is symbolic, ritual, and theatrical” (43).

VI

“During the fourth century we find a very different technology for the disclosure of the self, exagoreusis, much less famous than exomologesis but more important” (44).

  • “The well-developed and elaborated practice of the self-examination in monastic Christianity is different from the Senecan self-examination and […] must be understood from the point of view of two principles of Christian spirituality: obedience and contemplation” (44).
    • Obedience—”John Cassian repeats an old principle from the oriental tradition: “Everything the monk does without permission of his master constitutes a theft.” Here obedience is complete control of behavior by the master, not a final autonomous state. It is a sacrifice of the self, of the subject’s own will. This is the new technology of the self” (44-45, bold added)
    • Contemplation—considered the supreme good, with the goal of permanent contemplation of God. “Seneca had placed his stress on action. With Cassian the object is not past actions of the day; it’s the present thoughts. Since the monk must continuously turn his thoughts toward God, he must scrutinize the actual course of this thought” (45).
  • three analogies:
    1. mill—thoughts are like grains, sort the bad from good
    2. military—we must be officers ordering good soldiers to the right, bad to the left
    3. money—conscience is the money changer degree of purity, effigy, origin

BIG FINISH!

  • “In conclusion, in the Christianity of the first centuries, there are two main forms of disclosing self, of showing the truth about oneself. The first is exomologesis, or a dramatic expression of the situation of the penitent as sinner which makes manifest his status as sinner. The second is what was called in the spiritual literature exagoreusis. This is an analytical and continual verbalization of thoughts carried on in the relation of complete obedience to someone else. This relation is modeled on the renunciation of one’s own will and of one’s own self” [para]
  • “There is a great difference between exomologesis and exagoreusis; yet we have to underscore the fact that there is one important element in common: You cannot disclose without renouncing.”
  • “This theme of self-renunciation is very important. Throughout Christianity there is a correlation between disclosure of the self, dramatic or verbalized, and the renunciation of self. My hypothesis from looking at these two techniques is that it’s the second one, verbalization, which becomes the more important.  From the eighteenth century to the present, the techniques of verbalization have been reinserted in a different context by the so­ called human sciences in order to use them without renunciation of the self but to constitute, positively, a new self. To use these techniques without renouncing oneself constitutes a decisive break” (48-49).

Annotation Summary for: Foucault – Technologies of the Self

Page 16 (20), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “MICHEL FOUCAULT TECHNOLOGIES OF THE SELF”

Page 16 (20), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Unlike other interdictions, sexual interdictions are constantly connected with the obligation to tell the truth about oneself.”

Page 17 (21), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “I conceived of a rather odd project: not the evolution of sexual behavior but the projection of a history of the link between the obligation to tell the truth and the prohibitions against sexuality.”

Page 17 (21), Highlight (Cyan): Content: ” I asked: How had the subject been compelled to decipher himself inregard to what was forbidden? It is a question of the relation between asceticism and truth.”

Page 17 (21), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Max Weber posed the question: If one wants to behave rationally and regulate one’s action according to true principles, what part of one’s self should one renounce? What is the ascetic price of reason? To what kind of asceticism should one submit? I posed the opposite question: How have certain kinds of interdictions required the price of certain kinds of knowledge about oneself? What must one know about oneself in order to be willing to renounce anything?”

Page 17 (21), Underline (Red): Content: “Max Weber”

Page 17 (21), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Thus I arrived at the hermeneutics of technologies of the self in pagan and early Christian practice.”

Page 17 (21), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “CONTEXT OF STUDY”

Page 17 (21), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “My objective for more than twenty-five years has been to sketch out a history of the different ways in our culture that humans”

Page 18 (22), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “develop knowledge about themselves: economics, biology, psychiatry, medicine, and penology. The main point is not to accept this knowledge at face value but to analyze these so-called sciences as very specific “truth games” related to specific techniques that human beings use to understand themselves.”

Page 18 (22), Underline (Blue): Content: “”truth games””

Page 18 (22), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “As a context, we must understand that there are four major types of these “technologies,” each a matrix of practical reason: (I) technologies of production, which permit us to produce, transform, or manipulate things; (2) technologies of sign systems, which permit us to usc signs, meanings, symbols, or signification; (3) technologies of power, which determine the conduct of individuals and submit them to certain ends or domination, an objectivizing of the subject; (4) technologies of the self, which permit individuals to effect by their own means or with the help of others a certain number of operations on their own bodies and souls, thoughts, conduct, and way of being, so as to transform themselves in order to attain a certain state of happiness, purity, wisdom, perfection, or immortality.”

Page 18 (22), Underline (Blue): Content: “four major types of these “technologies,” (I)technologies of production, (2) technologies of sign systems, (3) technologies of power, (4) technologies of the self,”

Page 18 (22), Stamp (Star (Frame, Red))

Page 18 (22), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “These four types of technologies hardly ever function separately, although each one of them is associated with a certaintype of domination. Each implies certain modes of training and modification of individuals, not only in the obvious sense of acquiring certain skills but also in the sense of acquiring certain attitudes. ”

Page 18 (22), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “It is the last two, the technologies of domination and self, which have most kept my attention. I have attempted a history of the organization of knowledge with respect to both domination and the self.”

Page 19 (23), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “This contact between the technologies of domination of others and those of the self I call governmentality.”

Page 19 (23), Highlight (Yellow): Content: “governmentality.”

Page 19 (23), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “THE DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES OF THE SELF”

Page 19 (23), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “I wish to sketch out the development of the hermeneutics of the self in two different contexts which are historically contiguous: (1) Greco-Roman philosophy in the first two centuries A.D. of the early Roman Empire and (2) Christian spirituality and the monastic principles developed in the fourth and fifth centuries of the late Roman Empire.”

Page 19 (23), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Moreover, I wish to discuss the subject not only in theory but in relation to a set of practices in late antiquity. “to be concerned, to take care of yourself.””

Page 19 (23), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “When one is asked “What is the most important moral principle in ancient philosophy?” the immediate answer is not “Take care of oneself” but the Delphic principle, gnothi sauton (“Know yourself”).”

Page 20 (24), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “In Greek and Roman texts, the injunction of having to know yourself was always associated with the other principle of having to take care of yourself,”

Page 20 (24), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Socrates says in teaching people to occupy themselves with themselves, he teaches them to occupy themselves with the city.”

Page 20 (24), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Gregory of Nyssa’s treatise, On Virginity, renounces the world and marriage and”

Page 21 (25), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “detaches oneself from the flesh and, with virginity of heart and body, recovers the immortality of which one has been deprived.”

Page 21 (25), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Between these two extremes-Socrates and Gregory of Nyssa-taking care of oneself constituted not only a principle but also a constant practice.”

Page 21 (25), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “I would like to analyze the relation between care and self-knowledge, the relation found in Greco-Roman and Christian traditions between the care of oneself”

Page 22 (26), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “and the too-well-known principle “Know yourself.” As there are different forms of care, there are different forms of self.”

Page 22 (26), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “SUMMARY”

Page 22 (26), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “We are the inheritors of a social morality which seeks the rules for acceptable behavior in relations with others. There are several reasons why “Know yourself” has obscured “Take care of yourself.” We find it difficult to base rigorous morality and austere principles on the precept that we should give ourselves more care than anything else in the world.”

Page 22 (26), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “The second reason is that, in theoretical philosophy from Descartes to Husser!, knowledge of the self (the thinking subject) takes on an ever-increasing importance as the first step in the theory of knowledge.”

Page 22 (26), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “To summarize: There has been an inversion between the hierarchy of the two principles of antiquity, “Take care of yourself” and “Know thyself.” In Greco-Roman culture knowledge of oneself appeared as the consequence of taking care of yourself. In the modern world, knowledge of oneself constitutes the fundamental principle.”

Page 22 (26), Underline (Blue): Content: “To summarize: There has been an inversion between the hierarchy of the two principles of antiquity, “Take care of yourself” and “Know thyself.” In Greco-Roman culture knowledge of oneself appeared as the consequence of taking care of yourself. In the modern world, knowledge of oneself constitutes the fundamental principle.”

Page 22 (26), Stamp (Star (Frame, Red))

Page 23 (27), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “II”

Page 23 (27), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “The first philosophical elaboration of the concern with taking care of oneself that I wish to consider is found in Plato’s Alcibiades I.”

Page 23 (27), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “spurious I would like to analyze the care of self in the Alcibiades I in terms of three aspects.”

Page 23 (27), Underline (Blue): Content: “I would like to analyze the care of self in the Alcibiades I in terms of three aspects. r. How is this question introduced into the dialogue? What are the reasons Alcibiades and Socrates are brought to the notion of taking care of one’s self?”

Page 23 (27), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “r. How is this question introduced into the dialogue? What are the reasons Alcibiades and Socrates are brought to the notion of taking care of one’s self?”

Page 24 (28), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “They make a pact-Alcibiades will submit to his lover, Socrates, not in a physical but in a spiritual sense.”

Page 24 (28), Stamp (Question Mark (?, Red))

Page 24 (28), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “The intersection of political ambition and philosophical love is “taking care of oneself.””

Page 24 (28), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “In that relationship, why should Alcibiades be concerned 2. with himself, and why is Socrates concerned with that concern of Alcibiades?”

Page 24 (28), Underline (Blue): Content: “2. In that relationship, why should Alcibiades be concerned with himself, and why is Socrates concerned with that concern ofAlcibiades? ”

Page 24 (28), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Concern for self always refers to an active political and erotic state.”

Page 25 (29), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “3· The rest of the text is devoted to an analysis of this notion of epimelesthai, “taking pains with oneself.” It is divided into two questions: What is this self of which one has to take care, and of what docs that care consist?”

Page 25 (29), Underline (Blue): Content: “3· The rest of the text is devoted to an analysis of this notion of epimelesthai, “taking pains with oneself.” It is divided into two questions: What is this self of which one has to take care, and of what docs that care consist?”

Page 25 (29), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “First, what is the self (r 29h)? Self is a reflexive pronoun, and it has two meanings. Auto means “the same,” but it also conveys the notion of identity. The latter meaning shifts the question from “What is this self?” to “What is the plateau on which I shall find my identity?””

Page 25 (29), Underline (Magenta): Content: “First, what is the self (r 29h)? Self is a reflexive pronoun, and it has two meanings. Auto means “the same,” but it also conveys the notion of identity. The latter meaning shifts the question from “What is this self?” to “What is the plateau on which I shall find my identity?””

Page 25 (29), Highlight (Cyan): Content: ” When you take care of the body, you don’t take care of the self. The selfis not clothing, tools, or possessions. It is to be found in the principle which uses these tools, a principle not of the body but of the soul. ”

Page 25 (29), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “The second question is: How must we take care of this principle of activity, the soul? Of what does this care consist? One must know of what the soul consists.”

Page 25 (29), Underline (Blue): Content: “The second question is: How must we take care of this principle of activity, the soul? Of what does this care consist?”

Page 25 (29), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “The effort of the soul to know itself is the principle on which just political action can be founded, and Alcibiades will be a good politician insofar as he contemplates his soul in the divine element.”

Page 26 (30), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “This early text illuminates the historical background of the precept “taking care of oneself” and sets out four main problems that endure throughout antiquity, although the solutions offered often differ from those in Plato’s Alcibiades.”

Page 26 (30), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “First, there is the problem of the relation between being occupied with oneself and political activity.”

Page 26 (30), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Second, there is the problem of the relationship between being occupied with oneself and pedagogy.”

Page 26 (30), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Third, there is the problem of the relationship between concernfor oneself and the knowledge of oneself.”

Page 26 (30), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Fourth, there is the problem of the relationship between the care of self and philosophical love, or the relation to a master.”

Page 26 (30), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “This theme of taking care of oneself was”

Page 27 (31), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “not abstract advice but a widespread activity, a network of obligations and services to the soul.”

Page 27 (31), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Following Epicurus himself, the Epicureans believed that it’s never too late to occupy oneself with oneself.”

Page 27 (31), Highlight (Cyan): Content: ” One of the main features of taking care involved taking notes on oneself to be reread, writing treatises and letters to friends to help them, and keeping notebooks in order to reactivatefor oneself the truths one needed. Socrates’ letters are an example of this self-exercise. ”

Page 27 (31), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “The self is something to write about, a theme or object (subject) of writing activity. That is not a modern trait born of the Reformation or of romanticism; it is one of the most ancient Western traditions. It was well established and deeply rooted when Augustine started his Confessions.”

Page 28 (32), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “We see, for example, Seneca’s and Marcus’s meticulous concern with the details of daily life, with the movements of the spirit, with self-analysis.”

Page 28 (32), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Everything in the imperial period is present in Marcus Aurelius’s letter of 144-45 A.D. to Fronto:”

Page 29 (33), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “For the Stoics, the body was not so important, but Marcus Aurelius speaks of himself, his health, what he has eaten, his sore throat. Theoretically, the culture is soul-oriented, but all the concerns of the body take on a huge importance. ”

Page 30 (34), Highlight (Cyan): Content: ” The letter is the transcription of that examination of conscience. It stresses what you did, not what you thought. That is the difference between practice in the Hellenisticand imperial periods and later monastic practice. In Seneca too there are only deeds, not thoughts. But it does prefigure Christianconfession. ”

Page 30 (34), Stamp (Star (Frame, Red))

Page 30 (34), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “III”

Page 30 (34), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “In my discussion of Plato’s Alcibiades, I have isolated three major themes: first, the relation between care for oneself and care for the political life; second, the relation between taking care of the self and defective education; and third, the relation between taking care of oneself and knowing oneself.”

Page 30 (34), Underline (Blue): Content: “Plato’s Alcibiades, three major themes: first, the relation between care for oneself and care for thepolitical life; second, the relation between taking care of the self and defective education; and third, the relation between taking care of oneself and knowing oneself”

Page 30 (34), Underline (Red): Content: “Plato’s Alcibiades,”

Page 30 (34), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “First, to be concerned with self in the Hellenistic and Roman periods is not exclusively a preparation for political life. Care of”

Page 31 (35), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “the self has become a universal principle. One must leave politics to take better care of the self.”

Page 31 (35), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Second, the concern with oneself is not just obligatory for young people concerned with their education; it is a way of living for everybody throughout their lives.”

Page 31 (35), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Third, even if self-knowledge plays an important role in taking care of oneself, it involves other relationships as well.”

Page 31 (35), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “A medical model was substituted for Plato’s pedagogical model. The care of the self isn’t another kind of pedagogy; it has to become permanent medical care. Permanent medical care is oneof the central features of the care of the self. One must become the doctor of oneself.”

Page 31 (35), Highlight (Cyan): Content: ” Since we have to take care throughout life, the objective is no longer to get prepared for adult life, or for another life, but toget prepared for a certain complete achievement of life. ”

Page 31 (35), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Plato from the time of Plato to the Hellenistic age, the relationship between care of the self and knowledge of the self changed.”

Page 31 (35), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “In the philosophical movements of Stoicism we see the disappearence of dialogue and the increasing importance of a new”

Page 32 (36), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “pedagogical relationship–a new pedagogical game where the master/teacher speaks and doesn’t ask questions and the disciple doesn’t answer but must listen and keep silent.”

Page 32 (36), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “A culture of silence becomes more and more important.”

Page 32 (36), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “In Pythagorean culture, disciples kept silent for five years as a pedagogical rule. They didn’t ask questions or speak up during the lesson, but they developed the art of listening.”

Page 32 (36), Underline (Red): Content: “Plutarch’s (Peri tou akouein). On the Contemplative Life, Philo of Alexandria”

Page 32 (36), Highlight (Cyan): Content: ” Plutarch says that, following schooling,we have to learn to listen to logos throughout our adult life.”

Page 32 (36), Highlight (Yellow): Content: “logos”

Page 32 (36), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “You keep silent at the lecture. You think about it afterward. This is the art of listening to the voice of the master and the voice of reason in yourself.”

Page 32 (36), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “in the imperial period we have the themes of, on one side, the obligation of listening to”

Page 33 (37), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “truth and, on the other side, of looking and listening to the self for the truth within.”

Page 33 (37), Underline (Red): Content: “Seneca’s De Ira ”

Page 34 (38), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “For Seneca it isn’t a question of discovering truth in the subject but of remembering truth, recovering a truth which has been forgotten. Second, the subject doesn’t forget himself, his nature, origin, or his supernatural affinity, but the rules of conduct, what he ought to have done. Third, the recollection of errors committed in the day measures the distinction between what has been done and what should have been done. Fourth, the subject is not the operating ground for the process of deciphering but is the point where rules of conduct come together in memory. The subject constitutes the intersection between acts which have to be regulated and rules for what ought to be done. This is quite different from the Platonic conception and from the Christian conception of conscience.”

Page 34 (38), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “IV”

Page 34 (38), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “I have spoken of three Stoic techniques of self: letters to friends and disclosure of self; examination of self and conscience,”

Page 35 (39), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “including a review of what was done, of what should have been done, and comparison of the two. Now I want to consider the third Stoic technique, askesis, not a disclosure of the secret self but a remembering.”

Page 35 (39), Highlight (Yellow): Content: ” askesis”

Page 35 (39), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “For Plato, one must discover the truth that is within one. For the Stoics, truth is not in oneself but in the logoi, the teaching of the teachers.”

Page 35 (39), Highlight (Yellow): Content: “logoi,”

Page 35 (39), Highlight (Cyan): Content: ” One memorizes what one has heard, converting the statements one hears into rules of conduct. The subjectivization oftruth is the aim of these techniques. ”

Page 35 (39), Underline (Magenta): Content: “subjectivization of truth”

Page 35 (39), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “I want to underscore the fact that in Stoicism it’s not the deciphering of the self, not the means to disclose secrecy, which is important; it’s the memory of what you’ve done and what you’ve had to do.”

Page 35 (39), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “In the philosophical tradition dominated by Stoicism, askesis means not renunciation but the progressive consideration of self, or mastery over oneself, obtained not through the renunciation of reality but through the acquisition and assimilation of truth.”

Page 35 (39), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “What are the principle features of askesis? They include exercises in which the subject puts himself in a situation in whichhe can verify whether he can confront events and use the discourses with which he is armed. It is a question of testing the ”

Page 36 (40), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “preparation.”

Page 36 (40), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “The Greeks characterized the two poles of those exercises bythe terms melete and gymnasia. Melete means “meditation,” according to the Latin translation, meditatio The most famous exercise of meditation is the premeditatio mallorum as practiced by the Stoics.”

Page 36 (40), Highlight (Yellow): Content: “Melete”

Page 36 (40), Highlight (Yellow): Content: “premeditatio mallorum”

Page 36 (40), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “The Stoics developed three eidetic reductions of future misfortune. it is not a question of imagining the future as it is likely to turn out but to imagine the worst which can happen, even if there’s little chance that it will turn out that way-the worst as certainty, as actualizing what could happen, not as calculation of probability.”

Page 37 (41), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “The Epicureans were hostile to it because they thought it was useless. They thought it was better to recollect and memorize past pleasures in order to derive pleasure from present events.”

Page 37 (41), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “At the opposite pole is gymnasia (“to train oneself”). While meditatio is an imaginary experience that trains thought, gymnasia is training in a real situation, even if it’s been artificially induced.”

Page 37 (41), Highlight (Yellow): Content: “gymnasia”

Page 37 (41), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “is training in a real situation, even if it’s been artificially induced.There is a long tradition behind this: sexual abstinence, physical privation, and other rituals of purification. Those practices of abstinence have other meanings than purification or witnessing demonic force, as in Pythagoras and Socrates. In the culture of the Stoics, their function is to establish and test the independence of the individual with regard to the external world.”

Page 37 (41), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Epictetus provides the best example of the middle ground between these poles.”

Page 37 (41), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “There are two metaphors important from his point of view: the night watchman, who doesn’t admit anyone into town if that person can’t prove who he is (we must be “watchman” over the flux of thought), and the money changer, who verifies the authenticity of currency, looks at it, weighs and verifies it.”

Page 38 (42), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “In Epictetus there arc two exercises: sophistic and ethical. The firstare exercises borrowed from school: question-and-answer games. This must be an ethical game; that is, it must teach a moral lesson. The second are ambulatory exercises. In the morning you go for a walk, and you test your reactions to that walk. The purpose of both exercises is control of representations, not the deciphering of truth. They are reminders about conforming to the rules in the face of adversity. ”

Page 38 (42), Highlight (Cyan): Content: ” For Epictetus, thecontrol of representations means not deciphering but recalling principles of acting and thus seeing, through self-examination, if they govern your life. It is a kind of permanent self-examination. You have to be your own censor. ”

Page 38 (42), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “The meditation on death is the culmination of all these exercises.”

Page 39 (43), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “v”

Page 39 (43), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “I wish to examine the scheme of one of the main techniques of the self in early Christianity and what it was as a truth game. Todo so, I must look at the transition from pagan to Christian”

Page 40 (44), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “culture in which it is possible to see clear-cut continuities and discontinuities.”

Page 40 (44), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Christianity is not only a salvation religion, it’s a confessional religion. It imposes very strict obligations of truth, dogma, and canon, more so than do the pagan religions.”

Page 40 (44), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Christianity requires another form of truth obligation different from faith. Each person has the duty to know who he is, that is, to try to know what is happening inside him, to acknowledge faults, to recognize temptations, to locate desires, and everyone is obliged to disclose these things either to God or to others in the community and hence to bear public or private witness against oneself.”

Page 40 (44), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Purity of the soul is the consequence of self­ knowledge and a condition for understanding the text; in Augustine: Quis facit veritatem (to make truth in oneself, to get access to the light).”

Page 40 (44), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “I’d like to analyze the ways by which, in order to get access to”

Page 41 (45), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “the light, the church conceived of illumination: the disclosure of the self.”

Page 41 (45), Highlight (Yellow): Content: “illumination:”

Page 41 (45), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “One of the two main forms of those disclosures can be characterized by the word exomologesis, or “recognition of fact.””

Page 41 (45), Highlight (Yellow): Content: “exomologesis,”

Page 41 (45), Highlight (Cyan): Content: ” For Christians it meant to recognize publicly the truthof their faith or to recognize publicly that they were Christians. The word also had a penitential meaning. When a sinner seeks penance, he must visit the bishop and ask for it.”

Page 41 (45), Highlight (Cyan): Content: ” It had several characteristics. First, you were a penitent for four to ten years, and this status affected your life. There wasfasting, and there were rules about clothing and prohibitions about sex. The individual was marked so he couldn’t live the same life as others. ”

Page 41 (45), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “The sinner seeks his penance. He visits the bishop and asks the bishop to impose on him the status of a penitent. He must explain why he wants the status, and he has to explain his faults. This was nota confession; it was a condition of the status. ”

Page 42 (46), Stamp (Star (Frame, Red))

Page 42 (46), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “To prove suffering, to show shame, to make visible humility andexhibit modesty-these arc the main features of punishment. Penitence in early Christianity is a way of-life acted out at all times by accepting the obligation to disclose oneself. ”

Page 42 (46), Underline (Blue): Content: “To prove suffering, to show shame, to make visible humility and exhibit modesty-these arc the main features of punishment.”

Page 42 (46), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Tertullian uses the term puhlicatio sui to characterize exomologesis.”

Page 42 (46), Highlight (Yellow): Content: “puhlicatio sui”

Page 42 (46), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “What were its functions? First, this publication was a way to rub out sin and to restore the purity acquired by baptism. Second, it was also to show a sinner as he is. That’s the paradox at the heart of exomologesis; it rubs out the sin and yet reveals the sinner. The greater part of the act of penitence was not telling the truth of sin but showing the true sinful being of the sinner. It wasnot a way for the sinner to explain his sins but a way to present himself as a sinner. ”

Page 42 (46), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Expose is the heart of exomologesis.”

Page 42 (46), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “In the Christianity of the first centuries, Christian”

Page 43 (47), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “authors had recourse to three models to explain the relation between the paradox of rubbing out sins and disclosing oneself.”

Page 43 (47), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “The first is the medical model: One must show one’s wounds in order to be cured. Another model, which was less frequent, was the tribunal model of judgment. One always appeases one’s judge by confessing faults. ”

Page 43 (47), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “The most important model used to explain exomologesis was the model of death, of torture, or of martyrdom.”

Page 43 (47), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “The difference between the Stoic and Christian traditions is that in the Stoic tradition examination of self, judgment, and discipline show the way to self-knowledge by superimposing truthabout self through memory, that is, by memorizing the rules. In exomologesis, the penitent superimposes truth about self by violent rupture and dissociation. It is important to emphasize that this exomologesis is not verbal. It is symbolic, ritual, and theatrical. ”

Page 43 (47), Stamp (Star (Frame, Red))

Page 43 (47), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “VI”

Page 43 (47), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “During the fourth century we find a very different technology for the disclosure of the self, exagoreusis, much less famous than”

Page 43 (47), Highlight (Yellow): Content: “exagoreusis,”

Page 44 (48), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “exomologesis but more important.”

Page 44 (48), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “The well-developed and elaborated practice of the self-examination in monastic Christianity is different from the Senecan self-examination and must be understood from the point of view of two principles of Christian spirituality: obedience and contemplation.”

Page 44 (48), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “in monastic life obedience isn’t based just upon a need for self-improvement but must bear on all aspects of a monk’s life. There is no element in the life of the monk which may escape from this fundamental and permanentrelation of total obedience to the master.”

Page 44 (48), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “John Cassian repeats an old principle from the oriental tradition: “Everything the monk does without permission of his master constitutes a theft.””

Page 44 (48), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Here”

Page 45 (49), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “obedience is complete control of behavior by the master, not a final autonomous state. It is a sacrifice of the self, of the subject’s own will. This is the new technology of the self.”

Page 45 (49), Underline (Blue): Content: “complete control of behavior by the master, a sacrifice of the self, of the subject’s own will. This is the new technology of the”

Page 45 (49), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “The monk must have the permission of his director to do anything, even die.”

Page 45 (49), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “There is not a single moment when the monk can be autonomous.”

Page 45 (49), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “The second feature of monastic life is that contemplation is considered the supreme good.”

Page 45 (49), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “The goal is permanent contemplation of God.”

Page 45 (49), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Seneca had placed his stress on action. With Cassian the object is not past actions of the day; it’s the present thoughts. Since the monk must continuously turn his thoughts toward God, he must scrutinize the actual course of this thought.”

Page 46 (50), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “There are three major types of self-examination: first, self-examination with respect to thoughts in correspondence to reality (Cartesian); second, self-examination with respect to the way our thoughts relate to rules (Senecan), third, the examinationof self with respect to the relation between the hidden thought and an inner impurity. ”

Page 46 (50), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “At this moment begins the Christian hermeneutics of the self with its deciphering of inner thoughts. It implies that there is something hidden in ourselves and that we are always in a self-illusion which hides the secret.”

Page 46 (50), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Cassian givesthree analogies. First is the analogy of the mill Thoughts are like grains, and consciousness is themill store. It is our role as the miller to sort out amongst the grains those which are bad and those which can be admitted to the mill store to give the good flour and good bread of our salvation. ”

Page 46 (50), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Second, Cassian makes military analogies He uses an analogy of the officer who orders the good soldiers to march to the right, the bad to the left. We must act like officers who divide soldiers into two files, the good and the bad.”

Page 47 (51), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Third, he uses the analogy of a money changer Conscience is the money changer of the self. It must examine coins, their effigy, their metal, where they came from. It must weigh them to see if they have been ill used. As there is the image of the emperor on money, so must the image of God he on our thoughts. We must verify the quality of the thought: This effigy of God, is it real? What is its degree of purity? Is it mixed with desire or concupiscence?”

Page 48 (52), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “In conclusion, in the Christianity of the first centuries, there aretwo main forms of disclosing self, of showing the truth about oneself. The first is exomologesis, or a dramatic expression of the situation of the penitent as sinner which makes manifest his status as sinner. The second is what was called in the spiritual literature exagoreusis. This is an analytical and continual verbalization of thoughts carried on in the relation of complete obedience to someone else. This relation is modeled on the renunciation of one’s own will and of one’s own self. ”

Page 48 (52), Highlight (Yellow): Content: “exomologesis, exagoreusis.”

Page 48 (52), Stamp (Star (Frame, Red))

Page 48 (52), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “There is a great difference between exomologesis and exagoreusis; yet we have to underscore the fact that there is one important element in common: You cannot disclose without renouncing.”

Page 48 (52), Underline (Blue): Content: “You cannot disclose without renouncing.”

Page 48 (52), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “This theme of self-renunciation is very important. Throughout Christianity there is a correlation between disclosure of the self, dramatic or verbalized, and the renunciation of self. My hypothesis from looking at these two techniques is that it’s the second one, verbalization, which becomes the more important.”

Page 48 (52), Underline (Blue): Content: “Throughout Christianity there is a correlation between disclosure of the self, dramatic or verbalized, and the renunciation of self.”

Page 48 (52), Stamp (Star (Frame, Red))

Page 48 (52), Underline (Blue): Content: “My hypothesis from looking at these two techniques is that it’s the second one, verbalization, which becomes the more important.”

Page 49 (53), Highlight (Cyan): Content: “From the eighteenth century to the present, the techniques of verbalization have been reinserted in a different context by the so­ called human sciences in order to use them without renunciation of the self but to constitute, positively, a new self. To use these techniques without renouncing oneself constitutes a decisive break.”

Page 49 (53), Underline (Blue): Content: “From the eighteenth century to the present, the techniques of verbalization have been reinserted in a different context by the so­ called human sciences in order to use them without renunciation of the self but to constitute, positively, a new self. To use these techniques without renouncing oneself constitutes a decisive break.”

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