Rydell – The Coronation of Civilization

The Louisiana Purchase Exposition, Saint Louis, 1904: ”The Coronation of Civilization

by Robert W. Rydell

[ Rydell, Robert W. 1984. “The Louisiana Purchase Exposition, Saint Louis, 1904: ”The Coronation of Civilization.” Chapter 6 of All the World’s a Fair: Visions of Empire at American International Expositions, 1876-1916. University of Chicago Press. Pg. 154-183]

Points & Quotes:

The White City

” For the better part of 1904, the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, an ivory ­tinted city of vast proportions, served as the cultural touchstone for the nation as over nineteen million “open-eyed” and “open-souled” visitors, many armed with notebooks, thronged through its gates.” (155)

“The directors of the Saint Louis fair turned this portrait of the world into an anthropologically validated racial landscape that made the acquisition of the Philippine Islands and continued overseas economic expansion seem as much a part of the manifest destiny of the nation as the Louisiana Purchase itself.” (157)

“The person who classified the exhibits for the fair, F. J. V. Skiff, explained the meaning of this cumulative edu cation on opening day: ‘The scene which stretches before us to-day is fairer than upon which Christian gazed from Delectable Mountain.’ Continuing, he explained: ‘over and above all [the fair] is the record of the social conditions of mankind, registering not only the culture of the world at this time , but indicating the particular plans along with which different races and different peoples may safely proceed, or in fact have begun to advance towards a still higher development.'” (159)

The Louisiana Purchase Exposition featured the most extensive Anthropology Department of any world’s fair. The directors expressed their intent to establish ‘a comprehensive anthropological exhibition, constituting a Congress of Races, and exhibiting particularly the barbarous and semi-barbarous peoples of the world, as nearly as possible in their ordinary and native environments.'” (160)

In charge: “W J McGee, who had become one of the nation ‘s preeminent anthropologists during his tenure at the Bureau of American Ethnology …
“In ‘The Trend of Human Progress,’ McGee developed a broad overview of human history, observing the existence of a ‘trend of vital development from low toward the high, from dullness toward brightness, from idleness groveling toward intellectual uprightness.’ The driving forces behind this upward movement, he explained, were ‘cephalization‘—the gradual increase in the cranial capacity of different races—and ‘cheirization‘—the regular increase of manual dexterity along racial lines. The proof, he believed, was self-evident: ‘It is a matter of common observation that the white man can do more and better than the yellow, the yellow man more and better than the red or black.’ As a consequence of cheirization and cephalization, the ‘advance of culture’ proceeded along lines of racial achievement:

“‘Classed in terms of blood, the peoples of the world may be grouped in several races; classed in terms of what they do rather than what they merely are, they are conveniently grouped in the four culture grades of savagery, barbarism, civilization, and enlightenment.'”

W J McGee

“‘ It is the duty of the strong man to subjugate lower nature, to extirpate the bad and cultivate the good among living things, to delve in earth below and cleave the air above in search of fresh resources , to transform the seas into paths for ships and pastures for food-fishes, to yoke fire and lightning in chariots of subtly-wrought adamant, to halter thin vapors and harness turbulent waters into servile subjection, and in all ways to enslave the world for the support of humanity and the increase of human intelligence.

W J McGee

“The lectures offered a vision of racial progress that made cultural advance synonymous with increased industrial expansion.” (160-161, incl. quotes)

“‘The aim of the Department of Anthropology at the World’s Fair,’ McGee stated, ‘will be to represent human progress from the dark prime to the highest enlightenment, from savagery to civic organization, from egoism to altruism.’ ‘The method,’ he added, ‘will be to use living peoples in their accustomed avocations as our great object lesson.'” (162)

The “Philippine Reservation”

“To make the juncture between past, present, and future airtight, the Department of Exploitation, in charge of publicity for the Philippine Island exhibit, widely advertised the display from the islands as the ‘Philippine Reservation.'” (167)

“According to the World’s Fair Bulletin, Taft believed that the proposed exhibit would have a ‘moral effect’ on the people of the islands and that ‘Filipino participation would be a very great influence in completing pacification and in bringing Filipinos to improve their condition.'” (168)

“Radiating from the central plaza were a series of ethnological villages, often placed adjacent to exhibit buildings depicting the wealth of natural resources on the islands. The villages portrayed a variety of Filipino ‘types,’ including Visayans, ‘the high and more intelligent class of natives,’ Moros, ‘fierce followers of Mohammed,’ Bagobo ‘savages,’ ‘monkey-like’ Negritos, and ‘picturesque’ lgorots.

Directed by Albert Jenks, this institution, ‘with cloisters like a convent,’ contained exhibits devoted to ‘an interpretation of the habits and life of the Philippine tribes.’ Jenks concentrated on the lgorots, Moros, Bagobos, and Negritos and declared that they were ‘true savages.'” (171-172)

“Nothing propelled the Igorots and Negritos into prominence more rapidly than the controversy that erupted in June, shortly after the opening of the exhibit, over what one visitor termed ‘their dusky birthday robes.’

“the Roosevelt administration became concerned that local press reports emphasizing the absence of clothing on these Filipinos would undermine the government’s efforts at the fair to show the possibilities for progress on the islands. … To avoid ‘any possible impression that the Philippine Government is seeking to make prominent the savageness and barbarism of the wild tribes either for show purposes or to depreciate the popular estimate of the general civilization of the islands.’ … Taft suggested ‘that short trunks would be enough for the men, but that for the Negrito women there ought to be shirts or chemises of some sort.

“The government’s efforts at overnight civilization provoked much mirth, brought an outcry from anthropologists, and … in the need for maintaining the apparent genuineness of the exhibits, the Roosevelt administration abandoned its plans to compel the lgorots and Negritos lo wear bright-colored silk trousers.

“Authenticating these villagers as ‘savages ,’ · however, left the administration with the original problem. If fairgoers perceived the villagers as utterly backward and incapable of progress, the display would actually buttress the racist arguments used by anti-imperialists to oppose annexation of the islands. But the Philippine Exposition Board had already circumvented this dilemma by driving an ethnological wedge between the lgorots and Negritos. The Negritos, according to various official descriptions of their village, were ‘extremely low in intellect,’ and ‘it is believed that they will eventually become extinct.’ To reinforce this idea, one of the Negritos was named Missing Link. The lgorots, on the other hand, were judged capable of progressing.” (172-175)

The Pike

“‘To See the Pike Is to See the Entire World,’ the St. Louis World headlined an article about the L-shaped street with its ethnological villages, wild animal shows, mechanical amusements, and sham battles.”

  • “one newspaper ‘estimated that about 2,000 natives of the various races will be seen in the parade and that several hundred animals will add to the barbaric picture.’
  • “followed by ‘a hodge-podge of all nationalities’ drawn from Cairo Street, Mysterious Asia, Empire of India, Fair Japan, the Chinese Village, the Tyrolean Alps, the Moorish Palace, the Irish Village, the Old Plantation, and the Boer War Exhibit.” (179)

“Commercial motives buttressed by claims of ethnological authenticity animated the bazaars along the Pike that represented the Near and Middle East. In the Mysterious Asia concession, street scenes depicting Calcutta, Rangoon, and Tehran, populated with lndians, Burmese, and Persians, created the impression that these portions of the world were simply vast market-places peopled with ‘exotic types.’ The same effect was achieved by the separate concessions devoted to Jerusalem, Constantinople, and Cairo. Together these exhibits left few visitors in doubt about the Near and Middle East as a marketplace in which Americans could play at will.

The precise relation between the White City and the various ethnological features along the Pike, in the Anthropology Department, and in the Philippine Reservation hinged on the contrast between ‘savagery’ and ‘civilization.’ Contrasted with the grades of culture illustrated in the ethnological shows, the vision of America’s racial and material progress embodied in the White City burned bright.

Annotation Summary for Title of Work

Page 1 (1), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The Louisiana Purchase Exposition, Saint Louis, 1904:”The Coronation of Civilization””

Page 2 (2), Underline (Blue):
Content: “FOR THE BETTER PART OF’ 1904, the Louisiana Purchasetinted city of vast proportions, served as the cultural toas over nineteen million “open-eyed” and “open-souled”with notebooks, thronged through its gates “

Page 2 (2), Underline (Blue):
Content: “rchase Exposition, an ivory­served as the cultural touchstone for the nation”

Page 2 (2), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “FOR THE BETTER PART OF’ 1904, the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, an ivory­tinted city of vast proportions, served as the cultural touchstone for the nation “

Page 2 (2), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “as over nineteen million “open-eyed” and “open-souled” with notebooks, thronged through its gates . “

Page 2 (2), Underline (Blue):
Content: “souled” visitors, many anned”

Page 2 (2), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “pen-souled” visitors, many anned”

Page 2 (2), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “such a Fair as this that St. Louis offers leaves no intelligent visitor where itfound him. It fills him full of pictures and of knowledge that keep coming up “

Page 2 (2), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “in his mind for years afterwards.”

Page 2 (2), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” the fair embodied “as perfect an illustration as has been seen of the method of ,.the ‘University of the Future,’ which is to exchange pictures and living objects for text-books, and to make these, with the aid of laboratory work, the means whereby instruction is”

Page 2 (2), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “is given and individual development (is] obtained .” “

Page 2 (2), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” great mass of unlearned, if not unlettered, people whose first really wide outlook is to come to them now, and that other class possibly as large, who have never known the widening influence of travel,”

Page 4 (4), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “the dir ectors of the Saint Louis ..fair turned this portrait of the world into an anthropologically validated racial landscap e that made the acquisition of the Philippine Islands and continued overseas economic expansion seem as much a part of the manifest destiny of the nation as the Louisiana Purchase itself. J “

Page 4 (4), Underline (Blue):
Content: “the dir ectors of the Saint Louis ..fair turned this portrait of the world into an anthropologically validated racial landscap e that made the acquisition of the Philippine Islands and continued overseas economic expansion seem as much a part of the manifest destiny of the nation as the Louisiana Purchase itself. J “

Page 4 (4), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “sheer size of this the world had ever seen. Its total”

Page 4 (4), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “fair-the largest int ernational exposition the world had ev”

Page 4 (4), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “. I”

Page 4 (4), Underline (Blue):
Content: “largest int ernational exposition the world had ever seen.”

Page 4 (4), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “acreage nearly doubled the 664 acres of the World’s Columbian Exposition.”

Page 6 (6), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The person who classified the exhibit s for the fair , F. J. V. Skiff, explained the meaning of this cumulativ e edu cation on opening day: “The scene which stretches before us to-day is fairer than upon which Christian gazed from De­lectable Mountain.” Continuing, he explained: “over and above all (the fair] is the record of the social conditions of mankind, registering not only theculture of the world at this time, but indicating the parti cular plans along with which different races and different peoples may safely proceed, or in fact have begun to advance towards a still higher development.” “

Page 6 (6), Underline (Blue):
Content: “The person who classified the exhibit s for the fair , F. J. V. Skiff, explained the meaning of this cumulativ e edu cation on opening day: “The scene which stretches before us to-day is fairer than upon which Christian gazed from De­lectable Mountain.” Continuing, he explained: “over and above all (the fair] is the record of the social conditions of mankind, registering not only theculture of the world at this time, but indicating the parti cular plans along with which different races and different peoples may safely proceed, or in fact have begun to advance towards a still higher development.” “

Page 6 (6), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Skiffs classificatory mission.”

Page 6 (6), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Capital and labor must be classified; classified and correlated . A spade is of no value except in its employment, and it cannot be properly employed except dire ctly or indirectly in the work of developm ent in theline of progr ess. Progr ess depends upon unity, upon harmony. Common labor is the seed of progress. But the harvest must be gathered, and science must be the husbandman. “

Page 6 (6), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “A scientific classification, Skiff shaped their methods of analysis,capable of progres s.” 7 “

Page 6 (6), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “beli eved, gave purpose to people ‘s lives, and created “a properly balanced citizen”

Page 7 (7), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “”A universal exposition,” he told the graduating seniors at Colorado College , “is a vast museum of anthropology and ethnology, of man and his works.” This observation reflected the reality of the Saint Louis fair and the importance assigned by the directors to the Anthropology Department in their attempt tocreate that ‘”properly balanc ed citizen. ,,ll “

Page 7 (7), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The Louisiana Purcha;;e ogy Department of any worestablish .. a comprehensive of Races, and exhibiting paples of the world, as nearlyments.” “

Page 7 (7), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Exposition featured the most extensive Anthropol­ ogy Department of any world’s fair. The directors expressed establish .. a comprehensive their intent toanthropological exhibition, constituting a Congress of Races, and exhibiting particularly the barbarous and semi-barbarous peo­ ples of the world, as nearly as possible in their ordinary and nativ e environ­ “

Page 7 (7), Underline (Blue):
Content: “the most extensive of any world’s fair.”

Page 7 (7), Underline (Blue):
Content: “Anthropol­”

Page 7 (7), Underline (Blue):
Content: “ogy Department of any world’s fair.”

Page 7 (7), Underline (Blue):
Content: “The directors expressed their intent to”

Page 7 (7), Underline (Blue):
Content: “establish .. a comprof Races, and exhples of the world,ments.””

Page 7 (7), Underline (Blue):
Content: ” comprehensive anthropological exhibition, constituting a Congress of Races, and exhibiting particularly the barbarous and semi-barbarous peo­ples of the world, as nearly as possible in their ordinary and nativ e environ­ “

Page 7 (7), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “W J McGee,”

Page 7 (7), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “who had become one of th.e nation ‘s preeminent anthropologists during his tenure at the Bureau of Ame~-­ican Ethnology”

Page 7 (7), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “In “The Trend of Human Progress,” McGee develobroad overvit:w of human history, observing the existence of a “trend odevelopment from low toward the high, from dullness toward brightness,idleness groveling toward intellectual uprightness.” “

Page 7 (7), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “oped a nce of a “trend of vital toward brightness, from “

Page 7 (7), Underline (Blue):
Content: “In “The Trend of Human Progress,” McGee developed a broad overvit:w of human history, observing the existence of a “trend of vital development from low toward the high, from dullness toward brightness, from idleness groveling toward intellectual uprightness.” this upward movement, he explained, The driving forces behind were “cephalization”-the gradual in­crease in the cranial capacity of different races-and “cheirization”-the reg­ular increase of manual dexterity along racial lines. The proof, he believed, was self-evident: “It is a matter of common observation that the white man can do more and heller than the yellow, the yellow man more and better than the red or black.” As a consequence of cheirization and cephalization, the”advance of culture” proceeded along lines of racial achievement: “

Page 7 (7), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “dleness groveling toward intellectual uprightness.” this upward movement, he explained, The driving forces behind were “cephalization”-the gradual in­crease in the cranial capacity of different races-and “cheirization”-the reg­ular increase of manual dexterity along racial lines. The proof, he believed, was self-evident: “It is a matter of common observation that the white man can do more and heller than the yellow, the yellow man more and better than the red or black.” As a consequence of cheirization and cephalization, the”advance of culture” proceeded along lines of racial achievement: “

Page 8 (8), Stamp (openStarred)

Page 8 (8), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Classed in terms of blood, the peoples of the world may be grouped in several races; cl assed in terms of what they do rath er than what they merely are, they are conveniently group ed in the four culture grades ofsavagery, barbarism, civilization, and enlightenment. 11 “

Page 8 (8), Underline (Blue):
Content: “Classed in terms of blood, the peoples of the world may be grouped in several races; cl assed in terms of what they do rath er than what they merely are, they are conveniently group ed in the four culture grades ofsavagery, barbarism, civilization, and enlightenment. 11 “

Page 8 (8), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “ushering”

Page 8 (8), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Caucasians, he argued, were ushering d history when “human culture is becoming unified, notn but through the extinction of the lower grades as theirinto higher grades.” “

Page 8 (8), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “in a new era in world history wheonly through diffusion but through repr esentatives rise into high”

Page 8 (8), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The net effect of this proces s was “that the races of the contin ents are gradually uniting in lighter blend , and the burden of humanity is alr eady in large mea sure the White Man’s burden­ for, viewing the human world as it is, whit e and strong are synonymousterms. ” 12 “

Page 8 (8), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “it is the duty of the strong man to subjugat e lower nature, to extirpate the bad and cultivate the good among living thing s, to delve in earth below and cleave the air above in search of fresh resour ces , to transform the seas into paths for ships and pastur es for food-fishes, to yoke fire and lightning in chariots of subtly-wrought adamant, to halter thin vapors and harness turbulent waters into serv ile subjection, and inall ways to enslave the world for the support of humanit y and the increase of human intellig ence. “

Page 8 (8), Underline (Blue):
Content: “it is the duty of the strong man to subjugat e lower nature, to extirpate the bad and cultivate the good among living thing s, to delve in earth below and cleave the air above in search of fresh resour ces , to transform the seas into paths for ships and pastur es for food-fishes, to yoke fire and lightning in chariots of subtly-wrought adamant, to halter thin vapors and harness turbulent waters into serv ile subjection, and inall ways to enslave the world for the support of humanit y and the increase of human intellig ence. “

Page 8 (8), Note (Orange):
Racial purity + free markets= progress & strength

Page 8 (8), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “McGee scoffed at “pessimists, doubters, and cowards among the highest races who shudder at the figment of Wall Stre et and the phantom of monopoly; they forget that the multi-millionaire ‘s daught er beco mes an angel of mercy . . .and that the best organized monopoly founds a univ ersity whence a thousand students go forth annually to diffus e higher knowled ge.” For McGee, progress demanded unity of purpose as much as racial fitness . 13 “

Page 8 (8), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” The lectures offered a vision of racial progress that madesynonymous with increased industrial expansion. “

Page 8 (8), Underline (Blue):
Content: “The lectures offered a vision of racial progress that madesynonymous with increased industrial expansion. “

Page 8 (8), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “cultural advance sy”

Page 8 (8), Underline (Blue):
Content: “cultural advance synonymous with increased”

Page 8 (8), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “By stretch­ing humanity out on an anthropological moreover, McGee distinguished rack that highlight ed racial “grades,” between “enlightened” and “civilized” whites, thus broad ening his racial theory to include various white ethni c populations just when national concern was mounting about the racial “fitness” of southernand eastern Europeans immigrating to Ameri ca. 14 “

Page 9 (9), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “much of the anthropological <lata on which he based his argument was unpub­ lished, and perhaps unpubli shable. The necessary pieces of evidence, he as­sured his listeners, sites of savage lahoratories existed in abundance, skin-dressers of barbaric and mills of civilization, and “but they overflow the poor work­ ancient arrow-makers, the simple stone-workers and semi-barbaric and the elaborate manufactories smiths, the mines of enlightenment­ they are far loo voluminous for books, yet within the constant sight of allwhose eyes are open.” 1s “

Page 9 (9), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “”The aim of the Department of Anthropology at the World’sFair,” McGee stated, “will be to represent prime to the highest enlightenment, egoism to altruism.” in their accustomed human progress from the darkfrom savagery to civic organization, from”The method,” he added, “will be to use living peoplesavocations as our great object lesson,” w”

Page 9 (9), Underline (Blue):
Content: ” “The aim of the Department of Anthropology at the World’sFair,” McGee stated, “will be to represent prime to the highest enlightenment, egoism to altruism.” in their accustomed human progress from the darkfrom savagery to civic organization, from”The method,” he added, “will be to use living peoplesavocations as our great object lesson,” “

Page 9 (9), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “with particular emphasis on “Indian school work, America’s best effort to elevate the lowerraces.” “

Page 10 (10), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “For his efforts to implement this vision,him “overlord of the savage world.” 17 “

Page 10 (10), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “a”

Page 10 (10), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “local newspaper dubbed him “

Page 10 (10), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “McGee had converted the western portion of the expos ition grounds into a field research station for the study of nonwhit e “typ es.” Groups of pygmies from Africa, “Patagonian giants” from Argentina, Ainu aborigines from Japan , and Kwakiutl Indians from Vancouver Island, as well as groups of Native Ameri­ ca ns gathered around prominent Indian chiefs including Geronimo, Chief Jo­seph, and Quanah Parker, were formed into living ethnological exhibits. They were supplemented one thousand by an adjoining United States government exhibit of nearly Filipinos and by sep arate ethnological concessions along the Pike. McGee assembled the nonwhites dir ectly under his charge into a “logi­ cal arrangement” of living “types” stretched out between the Indian School Building and the Philippines display. 18 “

Page 14 (14), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Training, as McGee understood it, was part and parcel of the imperial mis­ sion. “One of the gravest tasks of any progressive nation,” he wrote for the World’s Fair Bulletin, official journal of the exposition, “is that of caring foralien wards, i.e., bearing the ‘White Man’s burden,’ as told by Kipling, “

Page 14 (14), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “McGee condemned much of America’s historical treatment of the Indianspraised Indian schools as “a boon to the survivors of our passing race.” “

Page 14 (14), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “but”

Page 14 (14), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “TheIndian School building, however, was “designed not merely as a consumma­ tion, but as a prophecy; for now that other primitive peoples are passing under the beneficent influence and protection of the Stars and Stripes, it is needful to take stock of past progress as a guide to the future.” “

Page 14 (14), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “To make the juncture betwetight, the Department of Exploitation, in charIsland exhibit, widely advertised the displaypine Reservation. “25 “

Page 14 (14), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “tween past, present, and future air­on, in charge of publicity for the Philippine the display from the islands as the “Philip­ “

Page 15 (15), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “According to the World’s Fair Bulletin, Taftbelit>ved that the proposed exhibit would have a “moral effect” on the peopleof the islands and that “Filipino parti cipation would be a very great influence in completing pacification and in l>ringing Filipinos to improve their condi­tion.” “

Page 18 (18), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Radiating from the central plaza were a series of ethnological villages, often placed adjacent to exhibit buildings depicting the wealth of natural resources on the islands. The villages portrayed a variety of Filipino “types,” including Visayans, “the high and more intelligent class of natives,” followers of Mohammed,” “picturesque” Bagobo “savages,” “monkey-like” Moros, “fierce Negritos, andlgorots. “

Page 18 (18), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Directed by Albert Jenks, this institution, “with cloisters like contained exhibits devoted to “an interpretation of the habits and Philippine tribes.” Jenks concentrated on the lgorots, Moros,”

Page 18 (18), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “a convent,” contained exhibits life of the Philippine tribes.”

Page 19 (19), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Bagobos, and Negritos and declared that they were “true savages.””

Page 19 (19), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Their relative numerical withstanding-there ros-the insignificance in the islands and at the fair not­ wer e 38 Bagobos, 41 Negritos, 114 lgorots, and 100 Mo­exhibits of the “wild tribes” became the most popular displays on “

Page 19 (19), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “the rest’rvation.”

Page 19 (19), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “From the start of the fair, the Jgorot and Negrito villages, esp eci ally the former, caught the fancy of fairgoers and of the nation to adegree unsurpassed by any exhibit at any fair since the summer of l 893 whenFatima ha<l dan ce d the hootchy-koot chy on the Midway at the World’s Colum­bian Exposition. “

Page 19 (19), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” the immediate impetus to see the lgorotexhibit stemmed less from preindustrial of white supremacist longings than from a powerful mixturesexual stereotypes and voyeurism. 38″

Page 19 (19), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Nothing prop elled the Jgorots and Negritos into prominence more rapidly than the controversy that erupted in June, shortly after the opening of the exhibit, over what one visitor termed “their dusky birthday robes.” “

Page 19 (19), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “the Roosevelt administration phasizing the absence became concerned that local press reports em­of dothing on these Filipinos would undermine the government’s efforts at the fair to show the possibilities islands. for progress on the On 23 June Taft wirnd Edwards to avoid “any possible impression that the Philippine Government is seeking to make prominent the savageness and barbarism of the wild tribes either for show purposes or to depreciate the popular estimate of the general civilization of the islands.” In a follow-up telegram, Taft suggested “that short trunks would be enough for the men, butthat for the Negri to women there ought to be shirts or chemises of some sort.” Taft also ordered: “Answer what you have done immediately. The President wishes to know.” “

Page 19 (19), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” Edwards lost no time in cabling his response, telling Taft that the Negritos “were until recently dressed up like plantation whom they diminutively represent, recently . .. nigger[s] ,[the] men have discarded these clothes and put on their native loin cloth.” Furthermore, Edwards in­formed the secretary of war, signs had been put up showing the low number of “‘wild trib es” relative to the overall population of the Philippines. ministration, The ad­however, remained unsatisfied “

Page 20 (20), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The government’s efforts at overnight civilization provoked much mirth, brought an outcry from anthropologists, and generated a great deal of publicity”

Page 21 (21), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The Saint Louis Post-Dispat ch “

Page 21 (21), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “for the exposition.”

Page 21 (21), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “di,;patched a letter to the “Dof Exploitation” at the reservation, declaring : “To put pants o and Negrito sj would change a very interesting shocks no one into a suggt’stive side-show.” “

Page 21 (21), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Depart­ on [the”

Page 21 (21), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “ment of Exploitation” at thelgorots and Negrito sj wouldwhich shock”

Page 21 (21), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “.\11th,·nticating tlwsc villag ers as “s avages ,’· howevt’r, left the ation with the original problem. haekwa n1 and incapable If fairgoer s perceived the villagersof progre:-s. “

Page 21 (21), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “·nticating tlwsc villag ers as “s avages ,’· howevt’r, left the administra­ tion with the original problem. If fairgoer s perceived the villagers as utterly”

Page 21 (21), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” the display,; would actually buttres s thera,·ist ctr~11ments u:-<1’d by anti-imp erialists to oppose annexation of the islands.”

Page 22 (22), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “But the Philippine Exposition Board had already circumvented this dilemma by d1iving an ethnological wedge between the lgorot s and Negritos. The Ne­gritos, according to various official descriptions of their v11lage, were “ex­tremely low in intellect,” and “it is believed that they will eventually become extinct.” To reinforce this idea, one of the Negritos was named Missing Link. The lgorots, on the other hand, were judg ed capable of progressing. “

Page 23 (23), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” Roosevelt visited the reservation and a missionary school­ teacher led her dass of lgorots in a chorus of “My Country ‘Tis of The e.” The Globe-Demurral recorded the president’s satisfaction. ,;evclt declar ed. –such advancement “lt is wonderful,” Roo­and in so short a time!” “

Page 26 (26), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “”To See the Pike Is to See the Entire World,” the St. Louis World headlined an article about the L-shaped street with its ethnological villages, wild animalshows, mechanical amusements, and sham battles. “

Page 26 (26), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Shortly before the fair opened, one newspaper ,/ natives of the various races will be seen in the hundred animals will add to the barbaric picture.””

Page 26 (26), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “”estimated that about 2,000 natives of the various races will be seen in the parade and that several hundred animals wi”

Page 26 (26), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “picture.” “

Page 26 (26), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “”a hodge-podge of all nafrom Cairo Street, Mysterious Asia, Empire of India, Fair JVillage, the Tyrolean Alps, the Moorish Palace, the IrishPlantation, and the Boer War Exhibit. 46”

Page 26 (26), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “drawn”

Page 26 (26), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “ationalities” drawna, Fair Japan, the Chinese the Irish Village, the Old “

Page 27 (27), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” the Japanese were compara tively well re­ceived. With Jap an’s victori es over Russia in the Russo-Japanese War sharing headlines with the opening of the fair, the Japanese exhibits became, in Well­man\; words, “the sensation of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition.” “

Page 27 (27), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “”At Chi cago,” Wellman re­ and picturesque makers of toys characteristic but limited fom1 people, with a hazy past nut far”

Page 27 (27), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “called, “the Japanese and knicknacks range–a appeared as interesting and picturesque and articles of virtue of characteristic sort of half-<lcvcloped, peculiar people, makers of toys fom1 but limited with a hazy past nut far”

Page 28 (28), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “removed from actual savagery and with an uncerta in futur e. At St. Louis theyappear as one of the first nations of the world.” “

Page 28 (28), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “When asked about Japan’s sudden military triumphs by a reporter from the Post-Dispat ch, McGee replied: “It’s the compl exity of the blood. The more · strains of blood a nation has in its veins, the greater and more powerful it becomes . . . and in the instance of the [Japanese] anthropologists find that ·.they are the most complex nation of the Orient, just as the Anglo-Saxons, through the waves of successive populations that swept over the continent, were made the most complex nation of the Occident.” “

Page 28 (28), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “part”

Page 28 (28), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “art of the answer to the dramatic appearan ce of the Japa­nese as “The Greeks of the East,” McGee bel ieved , lay with the Ainu aborig­ines on display in the Department of Anthropol ogy. “

Page 28 (28), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “In McGee’s eyes,”

Page 28 (28), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “the Ainus magnified the racial characteristics that underlay Japan ese progress. “Ainu men,” McGree noted, “have skins as white as Europeans, and in facial appearanc e they often resemble the Greeks ,but among the women there is always the heavy, coarse features and dark­ hued complexion that charact erizes the lower order of Mongolians.” “

Page 28 (28), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “commercial motives buttressed by claims of ethnological authentic­ity animated the bazaars along the Pike that represented the Near and MiddleEast. In the Mysterious Asia concessi on, street scenes depicting Calcutta, “

Page 28 (28), Underline (Blue):
Content: “commercial motives buttressed by claims of ethnological authentic­ity animated the bazaars along the Pike that represented the Near and MiddleEast. In the Mysterious Asia concessi on, street scenes depicting Calcutta, “

Page 28 (28), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “In the Mysterious Asia concessi on, street scenes depicting Calcutta,”

Page 29 (29), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Rangoon, and Tehran, populated with lndians, Burmese, and Persians, cre­ ated the impression that these portions of the world were simply vast market­ places peopled with ”exotic types.” The same effect was achieved by the sep­ arate concessions devoted to Jerusalem, Constantinople, and Cairo. Together these exhibits left few visitors in doubt about the Near and Middle East as amarketplace in which Americans could play at will. 51 “

Page 29 (29), Underline (Blue):
Content: “Rangoon, and Tehran, populated with lndians, Burmese, and Persians, cre­ated the impression that these portions of the world were simply vast market­ places peopled with ”exotic types.” The same effect was achieved by the sep­arate concessions devoted to Jerusalem, Constantinople, and Cairo. Together these exhibits left few visitors in doubt about the Near and Middle East as amarketplace in which Americans could play at will. 51 The precise relation between the White City and the various ethnological features along the Pike, in the Anthropology Department, pine Reservation tion.” “

Page 29 (29), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The precise relation bfeatures along the Pike, pine Reservation tion.” “

Page 29 (29), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “between the White City and the various ethnological Pike, in the Anthropology Department, and in the Philip­hinged on the contrast between “savagery” and “civiliza­”

Page 29 (29), Underline (Blue):
Content: “Contrasted with the grades of culture shows, the vision of America’s racial and matWhite City burned bright.”

Page 29 (29), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Contrasted with the grades of culture shows, the vision of America’s racial and matWhite City burned bright. “

Page 29 (29), Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “illustrated in the ethnological and material progress embodied in the”

Page 29 (29), Underline (Blue):
Content: “illustrated in the ethnological and material progress embodied in the”

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