Gershon – The Breakup 2.0

The Breakup 2.0: Disconnecting over New Media

by Ilana Gershon

[Gershon, Ilana. 2010. The Breakup 2.0: Disconnecting over New Media, Cornell University Press]

Points & Quotes:

Introduction

“Breaking up face-to-face is widely considered the ideal way to end a relationship. Most people told me that breaking up through the wrong medium can signal to others the initiator’s cowardice, lack of respect, callousness, or indifference. People’s ideas about the medium shape the ways that medium will deliver a message. No matter what is actually said, the medium becomes part of what is being communicated. … When you are breaking up, the medium is part of the message.” (3)

Media ideologies are a set of beliefs about communicative technologies with which users and designers explain perceived media structure and meaning. That is to say, what people think about the media they use will shape the way they use media.” (3)

“Sometimes what is important about a medium is how much it resembles another medium—like e-mail and letters for college students. Sometimes what is important is how distinct the medium is from other media—like e-mail and letters for me. Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin use the term “remediation” to describe the ways that people interlink media, suggesting that people define every technology in terms of the other communicative technologies available to them (1999, 28).” (5)

“People don’t concoct their media ideologies on their own; they develop their beliefs about media and ways of using media within idioms of practice. By idioms of practice, I mean that people figure out together how to use different media and often agree on the appropriate social uses of technology by asking advice and sharing stories with each other…
Idioms of practice emerge out of collective discussions and shared practices. Often the implicit intuitions don’t become apparent until someone violates an expectation—perhaps by breaking up using the wrong medium” (6)

“To sum up, remediation, different media ideologies, different idioms of practice—all these analytical concepts point to how people are experiencing these media as new media.” (9)

“People are still in the process of figuring out the social rules that might govern how to use these technologies. They are also working out how using a particular medium might affect the message sent through that medium. In asking “what makes new media new?” I am making a distinction between the fact of newness and the ways in which people understand and experience the newness of technology.” (10)

“Daniel Miller and Donald Slater are ethnographers of the Internet who warn scholars not to be the ones deciding what counts as virtual. Virtual communication, they argue, is ‘a social accomplishment’ that sometimes accompanies a medium such as the Internet, but does not invariably do so (Miller and Slater 2000, 6). (13)

“I soon realized that for the people I interviewed, Facebook, video chats, or instant messaging may be done through a computer screen, but they are not virtual. That is to say, these media are not cyberrealms distinct from other interactions, but rather Facebook communication is inextricably intertwined with every other way that they communicate. They did not understand information or meaning conveyed through Facebook or instant messaging to be “virtual,” while other forms of communication conveyed “real” information or meaning.
Practically, this means that for those I interviewed, Facebook communication is but one among many ways of communicating with others. Choosing to communicate by Facebook is almost always a choice that is understood not in terms of a choice between real communication and virtual communication but rather as a choice between Facebook, phone, e-mail, instant message, or in-person communication.” (13-14)

Chapter One

“As mentioned in the introduction, people’s media ideologies—their beliefs about how a medium communicates and structures communication—makes a personal e-mail account different from a work e-mail account, or a text message different from a phone call.” (18)

Second-order information refers to the information that can guide you into understanding how particular words and statements should be interpreted. One never sends a message without the message being accompanied by second-order information; that is, without indications about how the sender would like the message received.” (18)

“Turning to the media used is just an extension of a U.S. tendency to discuss breakups by describing the way breakups took place.” (23)

“The kind of informality people agree to attribute to a particular medium, such as texting, will shape when it is appropriate to use that medium. While text messages might be too informal for a breakup, they often had the right level of informality for starting to flirt with someone. Women insisted to me that if they met someone who was interested in them, they would exchange phone numbers, but only to text each other. Calling would express too much interest; calling would be too forward a move. But texting was considered to carry low enough stakes that one could begin an exchange with the right level of ambiguity, unclear whether the exchange is about friendship or desire.” (23-24)

I have been describing some of the media ideologies at play when people break up with each other (and there are many more), in part to clarify what it means to analyze new media from an ethnographic or anthropological perspective. I could discuss the ways I think a medium functions—whether texting ensures more of an immediate answer than instant messaging or e-mail, and how that might affect a breakup—but that would be an interpretation based on my own assumptions and experiences with technology. People develop understandings of how media functions based on their own practices and conversations they have with the people they know, as well as the stories they hear and see through the media.” (32)

one should not presume to know the media ideologies that accompany a particular technology in advance without asking a person many questions to determine what his or her media ideologies and practices are.” (32)

“People always mentioned which medium was used whenever they recounted a conversation. As people of all ages told me breakup stories, they tended to tell me not only the sequence of events, who said what and when, but they also always mentioned the media in which each conversation or message took place.” (34)

“once I started paying attention, it became clear that mentioning the medium is a relatively typical feature of contemporary American breakup narratives.” (35)

“I want to suggest that because people don’t share the same media ideologies, especially about new media, part of what someone is doing by marking every medium in their story is tracing the detective work they had to do to determine which genre of story this narrative was going to become as it unfolded.” (38)

Idioms of Practice: “Groups of friends, classes, workers in an office will develop together their own ways of using media to communicate with each other.” (39)

“Two main reasons emerged from the interviews to explain why there are so many idioms of practice with new media right now, why people keep discovering that there isn’t a general consensus…

  • First, because these are new media, people haven’t had time to develop a widespread consensus about how to use a medium, especially for relatively rare communicative tasks such as breaking up
  • Second, communicating with these new media can present social dilemmas that people have to solve—and will often try to figure out with their friends.” (39-40 bullets added)

How people understand the media they use shapes the ways they will use it. As a result, determining people’s media ideologies is crucial when you are trying to figure out the ways that people communicate through different technologies. Often, people take for granted their own assumptions about how a medium shapes the information transmitted. They don’t always realize that their way of using communicative technology is but one of many ways, that what they focus on as important features of a medium may not be generally held to be the important features.” (48)

[Looking forward to chapter 2] …”To understand other people’s media ideologies, one has to figure out two primary aspects. First, what structures of that particular medium matter for people, and when do those structures matter? …
Second, people understand a particular medium only in the con- text of other media.” (49)

Terms:

Media Ideologies—a set of beliefs about communicative technologies with which users and designers explain perceived media structure and meaning. That is to say, what people think about the media they use will shape the way they use media
[For a parallel definition of language ideologies, see Silverstein 1979, 193]

Idioms of Practice—people figure out together how to use different media and often agree on the appropriate social uses of technology by asking advice and sharing stories with each other

remediation—the ways that people interlink media, suggesting that people define every technology in terms of the other communicative technologies available to them (from Bolter & Grusin 1999, 28)

Second-order information—the information that can guide you into understanding how particular words and statements should be interpreted. One never sends a message without the message being accompanied by second-order information; that is, without indications about how the sender would like the message received.
This is part, but only part, of what linguistic anthropologists have called metapragmatics (see Silverstein 2001).

Selected Sources:

Bolter, Jay David, and Richard Grusin. 1999. Remediation: Understanding New Media. Cambridge: The MIT Press.

Miller, Daniel, and Don Slater. 2000. The Internet: An Ethnographic Approach. Oxford: Berg.

Silverstein, Michael. 1979. “Language Structure and Linguistic Ideology.” In The Elements: A Parasession on Linguistic Units and Levels, edited by Paul Clyne, William Hanks, and Carol Hofbauer, 193–247. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.

Silverstein, Michael. 2001. “The Limits of Awareness.” In Linguistic Anthropology: A Reader, edited by Alessandro Duranti, 382–401. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Annotation Summary for Title of Work

Page 11, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Introduction”

Page 13, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Breaking up face-to-face is widely considered the ideal way to end a relationship. Most people told me that breaking up through the wrong medium can signal to others the initiator’s cowardice, lack of respect, callousness, or indifference. People’s ideas about the medium shape the ways that medium will deliver a message. No matter what is actually said, the medium becomes part of what is being communicated. Sometimes the medium is in synch with the message, and sometimes it is so out of synch with the message that the message is undercut. To say: “I have so much work and other stuff going on in my life right now, I can’t be with anyone” as the away message on an instant mes- saging 3 profi le is using too public and informal a medium for the message to be taken as a serious and respectful gesture. When you are breaking up, the medium is part of the message.”

Page 13, Underline (Blue):
Content: “People’s ideas about the medium shape the ways that medium will deliver a message. No matter what is actually said, the medium becomes part of what is being communicated. “

Page 13, Underline (Blue):
Content: “When you are breaking up, the medium is part of the message.”

Page 13, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The medium shapes the message in part because people have media ideologies that shape the ways they think about and use different media. Media ideologies are a set of beliefs about com- municative technologies with which users and designers explain perceived media structure and meaning.4”

Page 13, Highlight (Yellow):
Content: “media ideologies”

Page 13, Underline (Magenta):
Content: “Media ideologies are a set of beliefs about com- municative technologies with which users and designers explain perceived media structure and meaning.4 That is to say, what people think about the media they use will shape the way they use media.”

Page 13, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “That is to say, what people think about the media they use will shape the way they use media. I discuss media ideologies and the other key concepts I mention in this introduction—remediation and idioms of practice—in much more depth in the fi rst three chapters.”

Page 13, Underline (Red):
Content: “4. For a parallel defi nition of language ideologies, see Silverstein 1979, 193.”

Page 14, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “I was surprised to fi nd out that for my students, e-mail was a formal medium. “

Page 14, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “For me, e-mail is infor-mal—I can write short notes to someone, and it often feels like it takes less time than a phone call. I also don’t need to fi nd a stamp and a mailbox. I see e-mail on a continuum between formal and informal”

Page 14, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “For my students, e-mail’s ability to resemble a let-ter marks it as more formal. For me, it is the many ways in which e-mail can be written more quickly and more haphazardly than a letter that helps make it an informal medium.”

Page 14, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Notice that in talking about different people’s media ideolo- gies about e-mail, it quickly becomes necessary to discuss people’s”

Page 15, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “media ideologies about letters as well. Because college students think of letters as formal, e-mail’s resemblance to letters (in their minds) makes e-mail, by analogy, formal as well. Media ideolo-gies about one medium are always affected by the media ideolo-gies people have about other media.”

Page 15, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Sometimes what is important about a medium is how much it resembles another medium—like e-mail and letters for college students. Sometimes what is important is how distinct the medium is from other media—like e-mail and letters for me.”

Page 15, Underline (Red):
Content: “Jay David Bolter”

Page 15, Underline (Red):
Content: “Richard Grusin”

Page 15, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “use the term “remediation” to describe the ways that people interlink media, suggesting that people defi ne every technology in terms of the other communica- tive technologies available to them (1999, 28).”

Page 15, Highlight (Yellow):
Content: ““remediation””

Page 15, Underline (Red):
Content: “(1999, 28).”

Page 15, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “In terms of breaking up, this means that when someone breaks up by e-mail, it mat- ters that they could also have chosen to break up by phone, voice mail, instant messaging, or letter. People are aware of the options and have distinct ideas about these options.”

Page 16, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “People don’t concoct their media ideologies on their own; they develop their beliefs about media and ways of using media within idioms of practice. By idioms of practice, I mean that people fi gure out together how to use different media and often agree on the ap- propriate social uses of technology by asking advice and sharing sto- ries with each other.”

Page 16, Highlight (Yellow):
Content: “idioms of practice.”

Page 16, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Idioms of practice emerge out of collective discussions and shared practices. Often the im- plicit intuitions don’t become apparent until someone violates an expectation—perhaps by breaking up using the wrong medium.”

Page 16, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Part of the reason why communicative technologies encourage people to form idioms of practice is that these technologies, partic- ularly new technologies, present people with a range of problems, both social and technical. People come up with solutions to these”

Page 17, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “problems through conversations with people they know. For ex- ample, when trying to fi gure out how to argue with their lovers by text message, students will ask their friends what they should text next.”

Page 19, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “. I ns t a l l e d on Se p- tember 5, 2006, the news feed started a little less than a year be- fore I began interviewing people. No one I talked to in 2006 about Face book liked the news feed at fi rst, but every student I inter- viewed in 2007 and 2008 found it an integral part of how they use Facebook. More important for the purposes of this book, breaking up by Face book before the news feed was a different experience than breaking up after the news feed. Since I fi nished the fi rst draft of this book, Facebook has changed the news feed again, trans- forming it into a live feed that provides information about how people’s Facebook friends have changed their profi le in “real time.” This form of news feed makes the most immediate interactions on Facebook the news feed’s priority. Relatively small changes in tech- nology can transform the ways in which people circulate informa- tion and consciously manage the circulation of information.”

Page 19, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “To sum up, remediation, different media ideologies, different idioms of practice—all these analytical concepts point to how peo- ple are experiencing these media as new media.”

Page 19, Underline (Blue):
Content: “To sum up, remediation, different media ideologies, different idioms of practice—all these analytical concepts point to how peo- ple are experiencing these media as new media.”

Page 20, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” People are still in the process of fi guring out the social rules that might govern how to use these technologies. They are also working out how using a particularmedium might affect the message sent through that medium. “

Page 20, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” In asking “what makes new media new?” I am making a distinction between the fact of newness and the ways in which people un-derstand and experience the newness of technology. Whether a piece of technology has actually been recently introduced isn’t as relevant to me as how people behave and think about a piece o”

Page 20, Underline (Blue):
Content: “In asking “what makes new media new?” I am making a distinction between the fact of newness and the ways in which people un- derstand and experience the newness of technology.”

Page 21, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “technology.”

Page 22, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “I am writing about the intersection between disconnec- tion and the media people use to disconnect. I look at what people say about mediated breakups as a starting point for understanding how people think about and use different media.”

Page 22, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “in my inter- views, many college students were very uneasy about how the media they use shape their social interactions. They were often nostalgic for the times that were B.F.”

Page 22, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “(before Facebook, launched in 2004),5 or before texting and instant messaging. They talked about how “

Page 23, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “complicated these different media made communication, focusing often on how much miscommunication was generated by a lack of intonation and other conversational cues available in face-to-face conversations. “

Page 23, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Daniel Miller and Donald Slater are ethnographers of the Internet who warn scholars not to be the ones deciding what counts as virtual. Virtual communication, they argue, is “a social accomplishment” that sometimes accompanies a medium such as the Internet, but does not invariably do so (Miller and Slater 2000, 6).”

Page 23, Underline (Red):
Content: “Daniel Miller and Donald Slater”

Page 23, Underline (Magenta):
Content: “Virtual communication, they argue, is “a social accomplishment” that sometimes accompanies a medium such as the Internet, but does not invariably do so”

Page 23, Underline (Red):
Content: “(Miller and Slater 2000, 6).”

Page 23, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Heeding Miller and Slater, I soon realized that for the people I interviewed, Facebook, video chats, or instant messaging may be done through a computer screen, but they are not virtual. That is to say, these media are not cyberrealms distinct from other interactions, but”

Page 23, Underline (Blue):
Content: “I soon realized that for the people I interviewed, Facebook, video chats, or instant messaging may be done through a computer screen, but they are not virtual. That is to say, these media are not cyberrealms distinct from other interactions, but”

Page 24, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “rather Facebook communication is inextricably intertwined with every other way that they communicate.”

Page 24, Underline (Blue):
Content: “rather Facebook communication is inextricably intertwined with every other way that they communicate.”

Page 24, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “They did not understand information or meaning conveyed through Facebook or instant messaging to be “virtual,” while other forms of communication conveyed “real” information or meaning.”

Page 24, Underline (Blue):
Content: “They did not understand information or meaning conveyed through Facebook or instant messaging to be “virtual,” while other forms of communication conveyed “real” information or meaning. Practically, this means that for those I interviewed, Facebook communication is but one among many ways of communicating with others. Choosing to communicate by Facebook is almost al- ways a choice that is understood not in terms of a choice between real communication and virtual communication but rather as a choice between Facebook, phone, e-mail, instant message, or in-person communication.”

Page 24, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Practically, this means that for those I interviewed, Facebook communication is but one among many ways of communicating with others.”

Page 24, Stamp (openStarred)

Page 24, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Choosing to communicate by Facebook is almost al- ways a choice that is understood not in terms of a choice between real communication and virtual communication but rather as a choice between Facebook, phone, e-mail, instant message, or in-person communication.”

Page 24, Note (Orange):
Networked publics

Page 24, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Analysts often overlook some aspects of new media that I will discuss in this book because they are mainly analyzing”

Page 25, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “how people connect. Turning to breakups brings into sharper focus the different idioms of practice and varied media ideologies surrounding new media.”

Page 25, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” Breakups allow me a useful vantage point from which to discuss how there isn’t a shared agreement about how the media should be used, what can be said through differ-ent media, or what is generally polite and not polite when usingthese media.”

Page 26, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Fifty Ways to Leave Your Lover MEDIA IDEOLOGIES AND IDIOMS OF PRACTICE”

Page 28, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “As mentioned in the introduction, people’s media ideologies—their beliefs about how a medium communicates and structures com- munication—makes a personal e-mail account different from a work e-mail account, or a text message different from a phone call.”

Page 28, Highlight (Yellow):
Content: ” media ideologies”

Page 28, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Second-order information refers to the information that can guide you into understanding how particular words and statements should be interpreted.1”

Page 28, Highlight (Yellow):
Content: “Second-order information”

Page 28, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “interpreted.1 One never sends a message without the message being accompanied by second-order information; that is, without indications about how the sender would like the message received.”

Page 28, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “You Can’t Text Message Breakup”

Page 28, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “This is part, but only part, of what linguistic anthropologists have called metapragmatics (see Silverstein 2001).”

Page 28, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “1. This”

Page 28, Underline (Red):
Content: “(see Silverstein 2001).”

Page 31, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Content isn’t everything; media ideologies matter.”

Page 31, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The term ideology does not have that connotation for me. Media ideologies are not true or false. An e-mail conversa-tion is not, in its essence, more formal than an instant-message conversation—or less honest or spontaneous, or more calculated. But some people believe that e-mail is more formal, more dishon-est, and more calculated, and this affects the ways they send and interpret e-mail messages. Understanding people’s media ideolo-gies can give insights into how utterances are received, and why people choose to reply in particular ways. But studying media ide-ologies will not give insights into what is really being communi-cated as opposed to what people believe is being communicated. It is not an analytical tool for discerning truth or reality; instead, it is but one analytical tool for understanding the ways in which all communication is socially constructed and socially interpreted. “

Page 32, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The “How” of Breaking Up”

Page 33, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Turning to the media used is just an exten- sion of a U.S. tendency to discuss breakups by describing the way breakups took place.”

Page 33, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Formality and Informality: Assessing Media”

Page 33, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The kind of informality people agree to attribute to a particular medium, such as texting, will shape when it is appropriate to use that medium.”

Page 33, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “While text messages might be too informal for a breakup, theyoften had the right level of informality for starting to fl irt with someone. Women insisted to me that if they met someone who was interested in them, they would exchange phone numbers, but “

Page 34, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “only to text each other. Calling would express too much interest; calling would be too forward a move. But texting was considered to carry low enough stakes that one could begin an exchange with the right level of ambiguity, unclear whether the exchange is about friendship or desire. “

Page 35, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Texting “I want to breakup” in some cases was only the mediated version of the face-to-face utterance: “We have to talk.” The possibility of a breakup is promised but not defi nite.”

Page 37, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “For the Gunslinger, e-mail and letters gradually became almost in- terchangeable as he thought about the etiquette challenges each presented. Other people his age with whom I spoke would also quickly equate letters and e-mails, viewing them as interchange- ably formal. Older people, by contrast, viewed e-mail as informal and de- scribed the way its informality affected communication.”

Page 38, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Is It Like Face-to-Face Conversation?”

Page 40, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “One student in a class of mine said that the problem with instant messaging was that you never knew if you were the only person they were talking to at that moment. Because this is on a computer screen, someone could be breaking up with one person and hooking up with another at the same time. In short, instant messaging could not guarantee that someone’s whole attention was on the person they were typing to. Technically this is also true of e-mail, Facebook, or text messages. But it is the ways that peo- ple talk about instant messaging and how similar it is to face-to- face conversations that also makes the differences that they notice between these two ways of communicating more of a problem.”

Page 40, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Another discomfort people had with instant messaging is that someone could simply end the conversation abruptly and without any forewarning. When people do this in face-to-face”

Page 41, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “conversations, there are bodily movements that give some indica- tion that this may be about to happen, and perhaps some clues as to why someone has chosen to end a conversation. By IM, there are no such nonverbal clues, so this ending is perceived as much more abrupt.”

Page 41, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “This is when instant messenger was a big part of my life—awaymessages told about your state of mind. You would put up the quote of a song, and it told if you were happy or sad. . . . “

Page 41, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “I have been describing some of the media ideologies at play when people break up with each other (and there are many more),”

Page 41, Underline (Blue):
Content: “I have been describing some of the media ideologies at play when people break up with each other (and there are many more),”

Page 42, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “in part to clarify what it means to analyze new media from an eth-nographic or anthropological perspective. I could discuss the ways I think a medium functions—whether texting ensures more of an immediate answer than instant messaging or e-mail, and how that might affect a breakup—but that would be an interpretation based on my own assumptions and experiences with technology. People develop understandings of how media functions based on their own practices and conversations they have with the people they know, as well as the stories they hear and see through the media.4 “

Page 42, Underline (Blue):
Content: “in part to clarify what it means to analyze new media from an eth- nographic or anthropological perspective. I could discuss the ways I think a medium functions—whether texting ensures more of an immediate answer than instant messaging or e-mail, and how that might affect a breakup—but that would be an interpretation based on my own assumptions and experiences with technology. People develop understandings of how media functions based on their own practices and conversations they have with the people they know, as well as the stories they hear and see through the media.4”

Page 42, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “one should not pre- sume to know the media ideologies that accompany a particular technology in advance without asking a person many questions to determine what his or her media ideologies and practices are.”

Page 42, Underline (Blue):
Content: “one should not pre- sume to know the media ideologies that accompany a particular technology in advance without asking a person many questions to determine what his or her media ideologies and practices are.”

Page 42, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Dating People with Different Media Ideologies”

Page 43, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “because these media ideologies are ideologies, they are always multiple, locatable, positioned, and contested.”

Page 44, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “And Then She Texted Me”

Page 44, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “People always mentioned”

Page 44, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “which medium was used whenever they recounted a conversation. As people of all ages told me breakup stories, they tended to tell me not only the sequence of events, who said what and when, but they also always mentioned the media in which each conversa- tion or message took place.”

Page 45, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “once I started paying attention, it became clear that mentioning the medium is a relatively typical feature of contem- porary American breakup narratives.”

Page 48, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “I want to suggest that because people don’t share the same mediaideologies, especially about new media, part of what someone is doing by marking every medium in their story is tracing the detec-tive work they had to do to determine which genre of story this nar-rative was going to become as it unfolded.”

Page 48, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The interactions might be a relationship fi ght leading to renewed commitment, or they might signal a breakup.”

Page 48, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Idioms of Practice”

Page 48, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “There”

Page 49, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “is another reason”

Page 49, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “that marking the medium contributes to the detective work of trying to understand a breakup: People have what I am calling different idioms of practice,”

Page 49, Underline (Blue):
Content: “People have what I am calling different idioms of practice, a term I men-“

Page 49, Highlight (Yellow):
Content: “idioms of practice,”

Page 49, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Groups of friends, classes, workers in an offi ce will develop together their own ways of using media to communicate with each other. Sometimes they realize that their way of using a medium is distinctive, that it marks them as differ-ent from other people. Sometimes they don’t perceive that their use of a medium is unique until some miscommunication or un-expected way someone was communicating made it clear (oftenunpleasantly clear) that others have different idioms of practice.”

Page 49, Underline (Blue):
Content: “Groups of friends, classes, workers in an offi ce will develop together their own ways of using media to communicate with each other.”

Page 49, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Two main reasons emerged from the interviews to explain why there are so many idioms of practice with new media right now,”

Page 49, Underline (Blue):
Content: “Two main reasons emerged from the interviews to explain why there are so many idioms of practice with new media right now, why people keep discovering that there isn’t a general consensus”

Page 49, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “First, because these arenew media, people haven’t had time to develop a widespread con-sensus about how to use a medium, especially for relatively rare communicative tasks such as breaking up”

Page 49, Underline (Blue):
Content: “First, because these are new media, people haven’t had time to develop a widespread con- sensus about how to use a medium, especially for relatively rare communicative tasks such as breaking”

Page 49, Underline (Red):
Content: “Lisa Gitelman,”

Page 49, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “As Gitelman explains, much of what we take for granted about older communicative technology like the telephone had to be”

Page 50, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “established. Saying “hello” was a phrase Thomas Edison had to invent and convince others to use instead of Alexander Graham Bell’s suggestion—“ahoy.””

Page 50, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Second, communicating with these new media can present so- cial dilemmas that people have to solve—and will often try to fi g- ure out with their friends.”

Page 50, Underline (Blue):
Content: “Second, communicating with these new media can present so-cial dilemmas that people have to solve—and will often try to fi g-ure out with their friends. “

Page 50, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “People’s communicative needs are so varied and unpredictable”

Page 51, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “that they are constantly facing the question of how best to usea particular medium given its structure and their media ideolo-gies. And in these moments, as they develop strategies for com-municating to solve specifi c problems (such as having someone else press “confi rm”), they are fashioning their own idioms ofpractice.”

Page 51, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Deleting Facebook Friends: Different Idioms of Practice”

Page 58, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Just as there aren’t widely shared idioms of practice, or media ideologies, there also aren’t widely shared ethical evaluations of media use. What people are trying to fi gure out are the ethics of how to end the relationship as they break up with people and then tell their friends stories about their breakups. “

Page 58, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “How people understand the media they use shapes the ways they will use it. As a result, determining people’s media ideologies is crucial when you are trying to fi gure out the ways that people communicate through different technologies.”

Page 58, Underline (Blue):
Content: “How people understand the media they use shapes the ways they will use it. As a result, determining people’s media ideologies is crucial when you are trying to fi gure out the ways that people communicate through different technologies.”

Page 58, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Often, people take for granted their own assumptions about how a medium shapes the information transmitted. They don’t always realize that their way of using communicative technology is but one of many ways, that what they focus on as important features of a medium may not be generally held to be the important features.”

Page 58, Underline (Blue):
Content: “Often, people take for granted their own assumptions about how a medium shapes the information transmitted. They don’t always realize that their way of using communicative technology is but one of many ways,”

Page 58, Underline (Blue):
Content: “that what they focus on as important features of a medium may not be generally held to be the important features.”

Page 58, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Over time, people’s practices can change from being idioms to widely accepted practices.”

Page 58, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “idioms to widely accepted practices. When media is relatively new, the medium itself can pose social quandaries for people when they try to use it to accomplish particular tasks.”

Page 59, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “To understand other people’s media ideologies, one has to fi gure out two primary aspects. First, what structures of that particular medium matter for people, and when do those structures matter?”

Page 59, Underline (Blue):
Content: “understand other people’s media ideologies, one has to fi gure out two primary aspects. First, what structures of that particular medium matter for people, and when do those structures matter?”

Page 59, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Second, people understand a particular medium only in the con- text of other media.”

Page 59, Underline (Blue):
Content: “Second, people understand a particular medium only in the con- text of other media.”

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