Smedley & Smedley- Race as Biology Is Fiction, Racism as a Social Problem Is Real

Race as Biology Is Fiction, Racism as a Social Problem Is Real: Anthropological and Historical Perspectives on the Social Construction of Race

by Audrey Smedley & Brian D. Smedley

[ Smedley, Audrey & Brian D. Smedley. 2005. “Race as Biology Is Fiction, Racism as a Social Problem Is Real: Anthropological and Historical Perspectives on the Social Construction of Race” in American Psychologist, Vol. 60, No. 1, 16–26]

Points & Quotes:

The very important main take away is in the title.

Here is a long quote that basically sums up most of the argument: “Categories of people that constitute social races bear little relationship to the reality of human biological diversity. From its inception, race was a folk idea, a culturally invented conception about human differences. It became an important mechanism for limiting and restricting access to privilege, power, and wealth. The ideology arose as a rationalization and justification for human slavery at a time when Western European societies were embracing philosophies promoting individual and human rights, liberty, democracy, justice, brotherhood, and equality. The idea of race distorts, exaggerates, and maximizes human differences; it is the most extreme form of difference that humans can assert about another human being or group, as one of its components is the belief that differences are permanent and cannot be overcome.” (22)

But here is the breakdown:

Anthropological and Historical Perspectives on Ethnicity, Culture, and Race

“The consensus among most scholars in fields such as evolutionary biology, anthropology, and other disciplines is that racial distinctions fail on all three counts— that is, they are not genetically discrete, are not reliably measured, and are not scientifically meaningful
[…]
race is a fairly recent construct, one that emerged well after population groups from different continents came into contact with one another.”(16)

“What is common to most anthropological conceptions of culture is the contention that culture is external, acquired, and transmissible to others. They do not treat culture as a part of the innate biological equipment of humans” (18)

“Ethnicity and culture are related phenomena and bear no intrinsic connection to human biological variations or race. Ethnicity refers to clusters of people who have common culture traits that they distinguish from those of other people.
…”ethnic groups and ethnicity are not fixed, bounded entities; they are open, flexible, and subject to change, and they are usually self- defined” (17)

“Ethnic differences also constitute an arena of diverse interests that can lead to conflict, […and] The most significant thing about interethnic conflict is that the vast majority of such conflicts have been, and still are, with neighboring groups—people who inhabit the same general environment and who virtually always share physical similarities, as, for example, the English and the Irish, Serbians and Croatians, Indians and Pakistanis, Armenians and Turks, Japanese and Koreans.” (18)

“Most human conflicts have not been racial, and there is no reason for antagonism to exist or persist simply because protagonists are identified as racially different.” (18)

Ancient Egyptian, Greek, Roman, & (later) Muslim Empires “encompassed peoples whose skin colors, hair textures, and facial features were highly varied”
[and]
“History shows that Africans in Europe were assimilated into those societies wherever they were found, and no significant
social meanings were attached to their physical differences.” (18)

So, historically speaking,
physical characteristics should never be included in a definition of ethnic identity. It is inaccurate to associate physical features with any specific cultural identity.” (18)

Science, Ideology, & Race

Beginning in the 19th Century, scientific knowledge turns “race” into an ideology…

“From the 19th century on, races have been seen in science as subdivisions of the human species that differ from one another phenotypically, on the basis of ancestral geographic origins, or that differ in the frequency of certain genes” (19)

“The genetic conception of race appeared in the mid-20th century and remains today as a definition or working hypothesis for many scholars, […but] When geneticists appeared who emphasized the similarities among races (humans are 99.9% alike), the small amount of real genetic differences among them (0.01%), and the difficulties of recognizing the racial identity of individuals through their genes, doubts about the biological reality of race appeared” (19)

“Thus, in the 20th century two conceptions of race existed: one that focused on human biogenetic variation exclusively and was the province of science, and a popular one that dominated all thinking about human differences and fused together both physical features and behavior. This popular conception, essentially a cultural invention, was and still is the original meaning of race that scholars in many fields turned their attention to in the latter part of the 20th century and the early 21st century” (19)

Racialized Science and Public Policy

“From a policy perspective, although the term race is not useful as a biological construct, policymakers cannot avoid the fact that social race remains a significant predictor of which groups have greater access to societal goods and resources and which groups face barriers—both historically and in the contemporary context—to full inclusion. The fact of inequality renders race an important social policy concern.” (22)

“Whereas individual discrimination is often easier to identify, institutional discrimination—the uneven access by group membership to re- sources, status, and power that stems from facially neutral policies and practices of organizations and institutions—is harder to identify.” (22)

“Evidence of racial and ethnic disparities in health care is, with few exceptions, remarkably consistent across a range of health care services. […and] race continues to play an important role in determining how individuals are treated, where they live, their employment opportunities, the quality of their health care, and whether individuals can fully participate in the social, political, and economic mainstream of American life.” (23)

Annotation Summary for Title of Work

Page 1, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Race as Biology Is Fiction, Racism as a Social Problem Is Real”

Page 1, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Anthropological and Historical Perspectives on the Social Construction of Race”

Page 1, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Audrey Smedley Brian D. Smedley”

Page 1, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Racialized science seeks to explain human population dif- ferences in health, intelligence, education, and wealth as the consequence of immutable, biologically based differ- ences between “racial” groups. Recent advances in the sequencing of the human genome and in an understanding of biological correlates of behavior have fueled racialized science, despite evidence that racial groups are not genet- ically discrete, reliably measured, or scientifically mean- ingful. Yet even these counterarguments often fail to take into account the origin and history of the idea of race. This article reviews the origins of the concept of race, placing the contemporary discussion of racial differences in an anthropological and historical context.”

Page 1, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The consensus among most scholars in fields such as evolutionary biology, anthropology, and other disci- plines is that racial distinctions fail on all three counts— that is, they are not genetically discrete, are not reliably measured, and are not scientifically meaningful.1”

Page 1, Underline (Blue):
Content: “The consensus among most scholars in fields such as evolutionary biology, anthropology, and other disci- plines is that racial distinctions fail on all three counts— that is, they are not genetically discrete, are not reliably measured, and are not scientifically meaningful.1”

Page 1, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” Yet eventhese counterarguments often fail to take into account theorigin and history of the idea of “race.” This history issignificant because it demonstrates that race is a fairlyrecent construct, one that emerged well after populationgroups from different continents came into contact withone another.”

Page 1, Underline (Blue):
Content: “race is a fairly recent construct, one that emerged well after population groups from different continents came into contact with one another.”

Page 1, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Psychologists such as Jensen (1974), Herrnstein”

Page 1, Underline (Red):
Content: “Jensen (1974), H”

Page 1, Underline (Red):
Content: “Herrnstein”

Page 1, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “(Herrnstein & Murray, 1996), and more recently, Rushton (1995) and Rowe (Rowe, 2002; Rowe & Cleveland, 1996) have advanced the argument that racial group variation on measures such as intelligence tests reflects genetically de- termined differences in group ability that cannot be ex- plained by differences in environmental living conditions or socioeconomic differences.”

Page 1, Underline (Red):
Content: “(Herrnstein & Murray, 1996),”

Page 1, Underline (Red):
Content: “Rushton (1995) and Rowe (Rowe, 2002; Rowe & Cleveland, 1996)”

Page 1, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “some scholars interested in racial distinctions have found new grist for the racial differences mill, as geneti- cists have made important advances in sequencing the human genome (Crow, 2002).”

Page 1, Underline (Red):
Content: “(Crow, 2002).”

Page 1, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “January 2005 ● American Psychologist”

Page 2, Note (Orange):
Good section on what culture actually is!

Page 2, Underline (Magenta):
Content: “cially acquired traditions of thought and behavior and in- cludes patterned, repetitive ways of thinking, acting, and feeling, as well as all arenas of creativity and invention (Harris, 1999). Humans, as individuals or groups, are not born with propensities for any particular culture, culture traits, or language, only with the capacity to acquire and to create culture (Harris, 1999; Marks, 1995). It is largely the human capacity for language that enables individuals to transmit culture traits from one person or group to another (see, e.g., Boas, 1940; Harris, 1999; Lewontin, 1995). But as both psychologists and anthropologist understand, lan- guage is not the only way by which an individual acquires or achieves cultural information.3”

Page 2, Underline (Magenta):
Content: “Thus, for heuristic purposes, anthropologists do not operate with the assumption of innate biological causes for any social (or economic, religious, political, etc.) behavior. They argue that culture traits—that is, human behavior— can best be understood in terms of other culture phenom- ena, not as products of some variable biogenetic reality as yet unproved (for a contemporary view of culture, see Harris, 1999, Pt. 2, or Peoples & Garrick, 2000). The evidence fromhistory and the study of thousands of diverse cultures around the world are testament to the overwhelm- ing and coercive power of culture to mold who we are and what we believe (Harris, 1999; Kaplan & Manners, 1972; Rapport & Overing, 2000).”

Page 2, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Ethnicity and culture are related phenomena and bearno intrinsic connection to human biological variations orrace. Ethnicity refers to clusters of people who have com-mon culture traits that they distinguish from those of otherpeople.”

Page 2, Underline (Blue):
Content: “Ethnicity and culture are related phenomena and bear no intrinsic connection to human biological variations or race. Ethnicity refers to clusters of people who have com- mon culture traits that they distinguish from those of other people.”

Page 2, Highlight (Yellow):
Content: “Ethnicity”

Page 2, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Anthropological and Historical Perspectives on Ethnicity, Culture, and Race Ethnicity and Culture”

Page 2, Underline (Magenta):
Content: “Anthropologists have an understanding of the term culture that differs from popular and other scholarly usage of the term (see Harris, 1968; Rapport & Overing, 2000). Every introductory textbook today contains the definition of cul- ture first proposed by E. B. Tylor in 1871 or some variation of it. “Culture,” he wrote, “is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capability and habits acquired by man as a member of society” (Tylor, 1871/1958, p. 1). Today, au- thors substitute humankind for man and often add a signif- icant phrase, “and based upon the human ability to sym- bol,” that is, the human ability to invent meanings and to act as if they are real or true (Carneiro, 2003; Harris, 1979; White, 1949; White & Dillingham, 1973). Anthropologists concur with cognitive psychologists that “symbolic repre- sentation is the principal cognitive signature of humans” (Donald, 1997, p. 737) that makes possible the enormous creativity of cultural phenomena (for exploration of the culture concept, see Harris, 1968, 1999; Stocking, 1968). What is common to most anthropological conceptions of culture is the contention that culture is external, ac- quired, and transmissible to others.2 They do not treat culture as a part of the innate biological equipment of humans (Harris, 1999). It is studied as extrasomatic, so-“

Page 2, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “ethnic groups and ethnicity are not fixed, bounded entities; they are open, flexible, and subject to change, and they are usually self- defined (Barth, 1998).”

Page 2, Underline (Red):
Content: “(Barth, 1998).”

Page 2, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “What is common to most anthropological conceptions of culture is the contention that culture is external, ac- quired, and transmissible to others.2”

Page 2, Underline (Blue):
Content: “What is common to most anthropological conceptions of culture is the contention that culture is external, ac- quired, and transmissible to others.2”

Page 2, Underline (Blue):
Content: “What is common to most anthropological conceptions of culture is the contention that culture is external, ac- quired, and transmissible to others.2”

Page 3, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Thus, most human conflicts have not been racial, and there is no reason for antagonism to exist or persist simply because protagonists are identified as racially different.”

Page 3, Underline (Blue):
Content: “Thus, most human conflicts have not been racial, and there is no reason for antagonism to exist or persist simply because protagonists are identified as racially different.”

Page 3, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Historical Perspectives on Human Variation”

Page 3, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “With the rise of empires, language and other cultural fea-tures were expanded territorially to encompass populationsin more remote geographical areas. “

Page 3, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” The empires of theancient world—the Egyptian, Greek, and Roman empires,and later the Muslim empire, with its center at Baghdad—encompassed peoples whose skin colors, hair textures, andfacial features were highly varied,”

Page 3, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “History shows that Africans in Europe were assimilated into those societies wherever they were found, and no significant social meanings were attached to their physical differ- ences.6”

Page 3, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Ethnic differences also constitute an arena of diverse interests that can lead to conflict,”

Page 3, Underline (Blue):
Content: “Ethnic differences also constitute an arena of diverse interests that can lead to conflict, but this should not be confused with what in contemporary times is referred to as “racial” conflict.”

Page 3, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “conflict, but this should not be confused with what in contemporary times is referred to as “racial” conflict.”

Page 3, Stamp (openStarred)

Page 3, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “It follows from this brief account of historical factsthat physical characteristics should never be included in adefinition of ethnic identity. It is inaccurate to associatephysical features with any specific cultural identity.”

Page 3, Underline (Blue):
Content: “It follows from this brief account of historical facts that physical characteristics should never be included in a definition of ethnic identity. It is inaccurate to associate physical features with any specific cultural identity.”

Page 3, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “This is particularly true in modern times, when individuals may have physical traits associated with one region of the world but may manifest very different cultures or ethnic identi- ties.”

Page 3, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The most significant thing about interethnic conflict isthat the vast majority of such conflicts have been, and stillare, with neighboring groups—people who inhabit thesame general environment and who virtually always sharephysical similarities, as, for example, the English and theIrish, Serbians and Croatians, Indians and Pakistanis, Ar-menians and Turks, Japanese and Koreans. “

Page 3, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The most significant thing about interethnic conflict is that the vast majority of such conflicts have been, and still are, with neighboring groups—people who inhabit the same general environment and who virtually always share physical similarities, as, for example, the English and the Irish, Serbians and Croatians, Indians and Pakistanis, Ar- menians and Turks, Japanese and Koreans.”

Page 3, Underline (Blue):
Content: “The most significant thing about interethnic conflict is that the vast majority of such conflicts have been, and still are, with neighboring groups—people who inhabit the same general environment and who virtually always share physical similarities,”

Page 4, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “A History of Race and the Ideology of Race”

Page 4, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “the concept of race that characterizes North American society carries with it the notion that each race has its own forms of social or cultural behavior. This is not borne out by anthropological and historical studies but is part of the myths connected to the ideology of race”

Page 4, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Historians have now shown that between the 16th and the 18th centuries, race was a folk idea in the English lan- guage; it was a general categorizing term, similar to and interchangeable with such terms as type, kind, sort, breed, and even species (Allen, 1994, 1997; Hannaford, 1996; A. Smedley, 1999a, 1999b).”

Page 4, Underline (Red):
Content: “(Allen, 1994, 1997; Hannaford, 1996; A. Smedley, 1999a, 1999b).”

Page 4, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Toward the end of the 17th cen- tury, race gradually emerged as a term referring to those populations then interacting in North America—Europe- ans, Africans, and Native Americans (Indians).7”

Page 4, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Steinberg(1989) made a clear distinction between racism and ethno-centrism. In speaking of the differences in America be-tween European immigrant minorities early in the 20thcentury and racial groups, he pointed out that immigrantswere “disparaged for their cultural peculiarities,” and theywere discriminated against, but the message conveyed bythe nation to them was, “You will become like us whetheryou want to or not.” Assimilation was necessary and ex-pected. With the low-status racial groups, the message was,“No matter how much like us you are, you will remainapart” (Steinberg, 1989, p. 42). Ethnicity was recognized asplastic and transmissible, but race conveyed the notion ofdifferences that could not be transcended.”

Page 4, Underline (Blue):
Content: “Steinberg(1989) made a clear distinction between racism and ethno-centrism. “

Page 4, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “By the Revolutionary era, race was widely used, and its meaning had solidified as a reference for social categories of Indians, Blacks, and Whites (Allen, 1994, 1997; A. Smedley, 1999b).”

Page 4, Underline (Red):
Content: “(Allen, 1994, 1997; A. Smedley, 1999b).”

Page 4, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The fabrication of a newtype of categorization for humanity was needed because theleaders of the American colonies at the turn of the 18thcentury had deliberately selected Africans to be permanentslaves (Allen, 1994, 1997; Fredrickson, 1988, 2002; Mor-gan, 1975; A. Smedley, 1999b).8 In an era when the dom-inant political philosophy was equality, civil rights, democ-racy, justice, and freedom for all human beings, the onlyway Christians could justify slavery was to demote Afri-cans to nonhuman status (Haller, 1971; A. Smedley,”

Page 4, Underline (Blue):
Content: “Ethnicity was recognized as plastic and transmissible, but race conveyed the notion of differences that could not be transcended.”

Page 4, Underline (Red):
Content: “(Allen, 1994, 1997; Fredrickson, 1988, 2002; Mor- gan, 1975; A. Smedley, 1999b).8”

Page 4, Underline (Blue):
Content: “In an era when the dom- inant political philosophy was equality, civil rights, democ- racy, justice, and freedom for all human beings, the only way Christians could justify slavery was to demote Afri- cans to nonhuman status”

Page 4, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Scientific Conceptions of Race”

Page 4, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “From the 19th century on, races have been seen in science as subdivisions of the human species that differ from one another phenotypically, on the basis of ancestral geo- graphic origins, or that differ in the frequency of certain genes (Lewontin, 1995; Marks, 1995; A. Smedley, 1999b).”

Page 4, Underline (Blue):
Content: “From the 19th century on, races have been seen in science as subdivisions of the human species that differ from one another phenotypically, on the basis of ancestral geo- graphic origins, or that differ in the frequency of certain genes (Lewontin, 1995; Marks, 1995; A. Smedley, 1999b).”

Page 4, Underline (Red):
Content: “(Haller, 1999b).”

Page 4, Underline (Red):
Content: “1971; A. Smedley,”

Page 4, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “1999b).”

Page 4, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The humanity of the Africans throughout the 19th century, with many holding the viewthat Africans were created separately from other, morehuman, beings.9”

Page 4, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “was debated”

Page 4, Underline (Red):
Content: “(Lewontin, 1995; Marks, 1995; A. Smedley, 1999b).”

Page 4, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The genetic conception of race appeared in the mid-20thcentury and remains today as a definition or working hy-pothesis for many scholars (A. Smedley, 1999b; Spencer,1982). However, other scholars have recognized that thereare no neutral conceptualizations of race in science, norhave any of the definitions ever satisfactorily fully ex-plained the phenomenon of race (Brace, 1969; A. Smedley,1999a, 1999b). “

Page 4, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The Components of Racial Ideology in United States Society”

Page 4, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Eighteenth- and 19th-century beliefs about human races have endured into the 20th and 21st centuries. Those soci- eties in which racial categories are critical to the social structure have certain ideological features—that is, beliefs”

Page 4, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “When geneticists appeared who empha- sized the similarities among races (humans are 99.9% alike), the small amount of real genetic differences among them (0.01%), and the difficulties of recognizing the racial identity of individuals through their genes, doubts about the biological reality of race appeared (see Littlefield, Lieber- man, & Reynolds, 1982).”

Page 4, Underline (Blue):
Content: “When geneticists appeared who empha- sized the similarities among races (humans are 99.9% alike), the small amount of real genetic differences among them (0.01%), and the difficulties of recognizing the racial identity of individuals through their genes, doubts about the biological reality of race appeared (see Littlefield, Lieber- man, & Reynolds, 1982).”

Page 4, Underline (Red):
Content: “(see Littlefield, Lieber- man, & Reynolds, 1982).”

Page 4, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Thus, in the 20th century two conceptions of race existed: one that focused on human biogenetic variation exclusively and was the province of science, and a popular one that dominated all thinking about human differences and fused together both physical features and behavior.”

Page 4, Underline (Blue):
Content: “in the 20th century two conceptions of race existed: one that focused on human biogenetic variation exclusively and was the province of science, and a popular one that dominated all thinking about human differences and fused together both physical features and behavior.”

Page 4, Stamp (openStarred)

Page 4, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “This popular conception, essentially a cultural invention, was and still is the original meaning of race that scholars in many fields turned their attention to in the latter part of the 20th century and the early 21st century (A. Smedley, 1999a, 1999b, 2002a, 2002b).”

Page 4, Underline (Blue):
Content: “This popular conception, essentially a cultural invention, was and still is the original meaning of race that scholars in many fields turned their attention to in the latter part of the 20th century and the early 21st century”

Page 4, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “For the 19th-century debates on the questionable humanity of Africans, see Chase, 1980; Fredrickson, 1987; and Haller, 1971, which is now seen as a classic. See also the debates between monogenists and polygenists in Hannaford, 1996, and A. Smedley 1999a. See also Brace, 1982.”

Page 4, Underline (Red):
Content: “(A. Smedley, 1999a, 1999b, 2002a, 2002b).”

Page 5, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “about human differences—in common.”

Page 5, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Race therefore can be seen as an ideology or worldview, and its components have often been spelled out explicitly in social policy.10”

Page 5, Underline (Blue):
Content: “Race”

Page 5, Underline (Blue):
Content: ” canbe seen as an ideology or worldview, and its componentshave often been spelled out explicitly in social policy.10″

Page 5, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “1. Race-based societies perceive designated racialgroups as biologically discrete and exclusive groups, andcertain physical characteristics (e.g., skin color, hair tex-ture, eye shape, and other facial features) become markersof race status. 2. They hold that races are naturally unequal andtherefore must be ranked hierarchically (inequality is fun-damental to all racial systems). In the United States andSouth Africa, Africans and their descendants occupy thelowest level of the hierarchy. 3. They assume that each race has distinctive culturalbehaviors linked to their biology. The idea of inheritedforms of behavior is fundamental to the concept of race andis one basis for the belief in the separation of races (as, e.g.,Black music, Black theater, Black literature, Black dance,Black forms of dress, Black language, etc.). 4. They assume that both physical features and behav-ior are innate and inherited. 5. They assume that the differences among races aretherefore profound and unalterable. This justifies segrega-tion of the races in schools, neighborhoods, churches, rec-reational centers, health centers, and so forth, and proscrip-tions against intermarriage or intermating. 6. They have racial classifications stipulated in thelegal and social system (racial identity by law). (Thisobtained until recently in the United States and South Africa.)”

Page 5, Underline (Blue):
Content: “1. Race-based societies perceive designated racial groups as biologically discrete and exclusive groups, and certain physical characteristics”

Page 5, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The single most important criterion of status was, and remains, the racial distinction between Black and White (Massey, 2001; A. Smedley, 1999b).”

Page 5, Underline (Blue):
Content: “Chase, 1980). The single most important criterion of status was, and remains, the racial distinction between Black and White (Massey, 2001; A. Smedley, 1999b).”

Page 5, Underline (Blue):
Content: “become markers of race status.”

Page 5, Underline (Red):
Content: “(Massey, 2001; A. Smedley, 1999b).”

Page 5, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Despite legal and social attempts to prohibit intermar- riage or intermating, some genetic mixture still occurred. In response, the United States had to resort to a fiction to help preserve the distinctiveness of the White/Black racial (and social) dichotomy. North Americans define as Black any- one who has known African ancestors, a phenomenon known and introduced by historians over half a century ago as the “one drop rule” (see, e.g., Degler, 1971).”

Page 5, Underline (Blue):
Content: “2. They hold that races are naturally unequal and therefore must be ranked hierarchically”

Page 5, Underline (Blue):
Content: “3. They assume that each race has distinctive cultural behaviors linked to their biology.”

Page 5, Underline (Red):
Content: “(see, e.g., Degler, 1971).”

Page 5, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “There is no socially sanctioned in-between classification,”

Page 5, Underline (Blue):
Content: “4. They assume that both physical features and behav- ior are innate and inherited.”

Page 5, Underline (Blue):
Content: “5. They assume that the differences among races are therefore profound and unalterable. This justifies segrega- tion of the races in schools, neighborhoods, churches, rec- reational centers, health centers, and so forth, and proscrip- tions against intermarriage or intermating.”

Page 5, Underline (Blue):
Content: “6. They have racial classifications stipulated in the legal and social system”

Page 5, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “There is mounting historical evidence that this modernideology of race took on a life of its own in the latter halfof the 19th century (Hannaford, 1996; A. Smedley, 1999b).As a paradigm for portraying the social reality of perma-nent inequality as something that was natural,”

Page 5, Underline (Red):
Content: “(Hannaford, 1996; A. Smedley, 1999b).”

Page 5, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The History of Race Ideology”

Page 5, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The contemporary conflicts between the Tutsi and Hutu ethnic groups in East Africa have no basis in tradi-“

Page 5, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “10 Legal development of the policies of segregation in the United States and apartheid in South Africa has been well documented in Fredrickson, 1981.”

Page 6, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “tional history but were generated by the policies of Euro- pean explorers and colonists, who imposed racial identities on these peoples to suit their own purposes (A. Smedley, 1999a; Graves, 2004, has a brief description).”

Page 6, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The rise of scientific and scholarly input into the character of races began during the latter part of the 18th century with the writings of the philosopher Voltaire,”

Page 6, Underline (Red):
Content: “(A. Smedley, 1999a; Graves, 2004, has a brief description).”

Page 6, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Voltaire, the planter and jurist Edward Long, and a physician, Dr. Charles White of Manchester, England, among others (A. Smedley, 1999b).”

Page 6, Underline (Red):
Content: “(A. Smedley, 1999b).”

Page 6, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “In the 19th century, some scholarly men initiated attempts to quantify the differences among races by measuring heads, and later other parts of the human body, with the stated purpose of documenting race inequal- ity (A. Smedley, 1999b; Haller, 1971; Marks, 1995).”

Page 6, Underline (Red):
Content: ” (A. Smedley, 1999b; Haller, 1971; Marks, 1995).”

Page 6, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “In the early 20th century, intelligence tests became thedominant interest of scientists who were seeking ways ofdocumenting significant differences, especially betweenBlacks and Whites.13”

Page 6, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The Beginnings of Scientific Classifications of Human Groups”

Page 6, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” As Haller (1971) has pointed out, noone doubted that the races were unequal or that each racehad distinctive behaviors that were unique: “The subject ofrace inferiority was beyond critical reach in the late 19thcentury” (p. 132).”

Page 6, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “While colonists were creating the folk idea of race, natu- ralists in Europe were engaged in efforts to establish clas- sifications of human groups in the 18th century.”

Page 6, Underline (Blue):
Content: “While colonists were creating the folk idea of race, natu- ralists in Europe were engaged in efforts to establish clas- sifications of human groups in the 18th century. They had to rely on colonists’ descriptions of indigenous peoples for the most part, and their categories were replete with sub- jective comments about their appearances and behaviors. Ethnic chauvinism and a well-developed notion of the “savage” or “primitives” dictated that they classify native peoples as inferior forms of humans.12”

Page 6, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “sifications of human groups in the 18th century. They had to rely on colonists’ descriptions of indigenous peoples for the most part, and their categories were replete with sub- jective comments about their appearances and behaviors. Ethnic chauvinism and a well-developed notion of the “savage” or “primitives” dictated that they classify native peoples as inferior forms of humans.12”

Page 6, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “With studies of the human genome and discoveries of the role of DNA in disease, it has become possible to speculate on specific genes as sources of human behavior.”

Page 6, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Linnaeus and Blumenbach introduced classifica- tions of the varieties of humankind that later became the established names for the races of the world (Slotkin, 1965).”

Page 6, Underline (Red):
Content: “(Slotkin, 1965).”

Page 6, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Some anticipate that they will eventually be able to actually prove race differences in violence, temperament, sexuality, intelligence, and many other men- tal characteristics.14”

Page 6, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Thomas Jefferson”

Page 6, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” was the first American to spec-ulate and write publicly about the character of the “Negro,”whomhe knew only in the role of slaves on his plantations.He was the first to suggest the natural inferiority of theNegro as a new rationalization for slavery in the only bookhe wrote, Notes on the State of Virginia (Jefferson, 1785/1955), “

Page 6, Underline (Red):
Content: “Notes on the State of Virginia (Jefferson, 1785/1955”

Page 6, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “13 The history of intelligence testing has been covered by a numberof scholars in the last three or four decades (see Chase, 1980; Kevles,1985; Marks, 1995; Mensh & Mensh, 1991; A. Smedley, 1999a, 1999b;see especially the articles in Fish, 2002).”

Page 6, Underline (Red):
Content: “(see Chase, 1980; Kevles, 1985; Marks, 1995; Mensh & Mensh, 1991; A. Smedley, 1999a, 1999b; see especially the articles in Fish, 2002).”

Page 6, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “14 Psychologist J. Philippe Rushton (Rushton, 1995) has claimed that he can identify at least 60 social/behavioral variables that distinguish the three major racial groups. He believes that these variables are innate and are directly determined by genes.”

Page 7, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” categories of people that constitute social races bearlittle relationship to the reality of human biological diver-sity. From its inception, race was a folk idea, a culturallyinvented conception about human differences. It became animportant mechanism for limiting and restricting access toprivilege, power, and wealth. The ideology arose as arationalization and justification for human slavery at a timewhen Western European societies were embracing philos-ophies promoting individual and human rights, liberty,democracy, justice, brotherhood, and equality.15 The ideaof race distorts, exaggerates, and maximizes human differ-ences; it is the most extreme form of difference that hu-mans can assert about another human being or group, asone of its components is the belief that differences arepermanent and cannot be overcome”

Page 7, Underline (Blue):
Content: “categories of people that constitute social races bear little relationship to the reality of human biological diver- sity. From its inception, race was a folk idea, a culturally invented conception about human differences. It became an important mechanism for limiting and restricting access to privilege, power, and wealth. The ideology arose as a rationalization and justification for human slavery at a time when Western European societies were embracing philos- ophies promoting individual and human rights, liberty, democracy, justice, brotherhood, and equality.15 The idea of race distorts, exaggerates, and maximizes human differ- ences; it is the most extreme form of difference that hu- mans can assert about another human being or group, as one of its components is the belief that differences are permanent and cannot be overcome”

Page 7, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Conservative legal scholars and social scientists argue that discrimination has largely been eliminated from the American landscape (D’Souza, 1996; Thernstrom & Thernstrom, 1999), whereas others argue that discrimination has simply taken on subtler forms that make it difficult to define and identify.”

Page 7, Stamp (openStarred)

Page 7, Underline (Red):
Content: “(D’Souza, 1996; Thernstrom & Thernstrom, 1999),”

Page 7, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” whereas individual discrim-ination is often easier to identify, institutional discrimina-tion—the uneven access by group membership to re-sources, status, and power that stems from facially neutralpolicies and practices of organizations and institutions—isharder to identify.”

Page 7, Highlight (Yellow):
Content: “institutional discrimina-tion”

Page 7, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Racialized Science and Public Policy”

Page 7, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Racial and ethnic discrimination and disadvantage have been consistently documented in studies of home mortgage lending (U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, 1999), housing discrim- ination and residential segregation (Massey, 2001), and employment and housing practices (Fix, Galster, &Struyk, 1993).”

Page 7, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Given that racialized science is based on an imprecise anddistorted understanding of human differences, should thetermrace be abandoned as a matter of social policy? Stateddifferently, if race is not a biological or anthropologicalreality, should race play a role in policy discussions?”

Page 7, Underline (Blue):
Content: “Given that racialized science is based on an imprecise and distorted understanding of human differences, should the termrace be abandoned as a matter of social policy? Stated differently, if race is not a biological or anthropological reality, should race play a role in policy discussions?”

Page 7, Underline (Red):
Content: “(U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, 1999),”

Page 7, Underline (Red):
Content: “(Massey, 2001),”

Page 7, Stamp (openStarred)

Page 7, Underline (Red):
Content: “(Fix, Galster, &Struyk, 1993).”

Page 7, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “From a policy perspective, although the termrace is not useful as a biological construct, policymakers cannot avoid the fact that social race remains a significant predictor of which groups have greater access to societal goods and resources and which groups face barriers—both historically and in the contemporary context—to full inclusion.”

Page 7, Underline (Blue):
Content: “From a policy perspective, although the termrace is not useful as a biological construct, policymakers cannot avoid the fact that social race remains a significant predictor of which groups have greater access to societal goods and resources and which groups face barriers—both historically and in the contemporary context—to full inclusion.”

Page 7, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Because disparities in health care may reflect a complex mix of social, economic, biologic, and genetic factors and there- fore provide a test of the validity of racialized science, in the next section we reviewrelevant literature on health care disparities and assess the implications of racialized science for public policies to address these disparities.”

Page 7, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The fact of inequality renders race an important social policy concern.”

Page 7, Underline (Blue):
Content: “The fact of inequality renders race an important social policy concern.”

Page 7, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “As Michael Omi noted, “the idea of race and its persistence as a social category is only given meaning in a social order structured by forms of inequality—economic, political, and cultural—that are orga- nized, to a significant degree, by race” (Omi, 2001, p. 254).”

Page 7, Stamp (yesgrn)

Page 7, Underline (Red):
Content: “(Omi, 2001, p. 254).”

Page 8, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Race, Ethnicity, and Health Care”

Page 8, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Evidence of racial andethnic disparities in health care is, with few exceptions,remarkably consistent across a range of health care ser-vices”

Page 8, Underline (Blue):
Content: “Evidence of racial and ethnic disparities in health care is, with few exceptions, remarkably consistent across a range of health care ser- vices,”

Page 8, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Health care disparities are also found in other diseaseareas. Several studies demonstrate significant racial differ-ences in the receipt of appropriate cancer diagnostic tests”

Page 8, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “treatments”

Page 8, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “and analgesics”

Page 8, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The majority of studies,”

Page 8, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “find that racial and ethnic disparities in health care remain even after adjustment for socioeconomic differ- ences and other factors related to health care access (Kres- sin & Petersen, 2001; Mayberry, Mili, & Ofili, 2000; Phy- sicians for Human Rights, 2003; B. D. Smedley et al., 2003).”

Page 8, Underline (Red):
Content: “(Kres- sin & Petersen, 2001; Mayberry, Mili, & Ofili, 2000; Phy- sicians for Human Rights, 2003; B. D. Smedley et al., 2003).”

Page 8, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “In addition, differences in the quality of HIV care are associated with poorer survival rates among minorities, even at equivalent levels of access to care”

Page 8, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “In general, this research shows the following:”

Page 8, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “African Americans and Hispanics tend to receivelower quality health care across a range of diseaseareas (including cancer, cardiovascular disease,HIV/AIDS, diabetes, mental health, and otherchronic and infectious diseases) and clinical ser-vices (B. D. Smedley et al., 2003); ● African Americans are more likely than Whites toreceive less desirable services, such as amputationof all or part of a limb (Gornick et al., 1996); ● Disparities are found even when clinical factors,such as stage of disease presentation, comorbidities,age, and severity of disease are taken into account(B. D. Smedley et al., 2003); ● Disparities are found across a range of clinical set-tings, including public and private hospitals, teach-ing and nonteaching hospitals, and so forth (B. D.Smedley et al., 2003); ● Disparities in care are associated with higher mor-tality among minorities who do not receive the sameservices as Whites (e.g., surgical treatment forsmall-cell lung cancer; Bach, Cramer, Warren, &Begg, 1999). “

Page 8, Underline (Blue):
Content: “African Americans and Hispanics tend to receive lower quality health care across a range of disease areas”

Page 8, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “more so than in other areas of health and medicine, mental health services are “plagued by disparities in the availability of and access to its services,” and that “these disparities are viewed readily through the lenses of racial and cultural diversity, age, and gender””

Page 8, Underline (Blue):
Content: “African Americans are more likely than Whites to receive less desirable services, such as amputation”

Page 8, Underline (Blue):
Content: “Disparities are found even when clinical factors, such as stage of disease presentation, comorbidities, age, and severity of disease are taken into account”

Page 8, Underline (Blue):
Content: “Disparities are found across a range of clinical set-tings, including public and private hospitals, teach-ing and nonteaching hospitals, and so forth”

Page 8, Underline (Blue):
Content: “Disparities in care are associated with higher mor- tality among minorities who do not receive the same services as Whites”

Page 8, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Public Policy Cannot Ignore Race”

Page 8, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “As the literature in health care disparities attests, contraryto the optimistic assessments of conservative thinkers(D’Souza, 1996; Thernstrom & Thernstrom, 1999) and,more generally, the American public, race continues to playan important role in determining how individuals aretreated, where they live, their employment opportunities,the quality of their health care, and whether individuals canfully participate in the social, political, and economic main-stream of American life.”

Page 8, Underline (Blue):
Content: “As the literature in health care disparities attests, contraryto the optimistic assessments of conservative thinkers(D’Souza, 1996; Thernstrom & Thernstrom, 1999) and,more generally, the American public, race continues to playan important role in determining how individuals aretreated, where they live, their employment opportunities,the quality of their health care, and whether individuals canfully participate in the social, political, and economic main-stream of American life”

Page 8, Underline (Red):
Content: “(D’Souza, 1996; Thernstrom & Thernstrom, 1999)”

Page 9, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Racialized science, with its emphasis onidentifying immutable differences between racial groups,can be expected only to maintain and reinforce existingracial inequality, in that its adherents indirectly argue thatno degree of government intervention or social change willalter the skills and abilities of different racial groups”

Page 9, Underline (Blue):
Content: “Racialized science, with its emphasis on identifying immutable differences between racial groups, can be expected only to maintain and reinforce existing racial inequality, in that its adherents indirectly argue that no degree of government intervention or social change will alter the skills and abilities of different racial groups.”

Page 9, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The disproportionate representation of some “racial” groups (e.g., African Americans, American Indians) among lower socioeconomic tiers can therefore be explained as an un- avoidable byproduct of human evolution.”

Page 9, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Yet reinforcing this widely held social stereotype of racial inferiority risks limiting individual human potential, in that individuals’ abilities and opportunities would likely be assessed in relation to their racial group.”

Page 9, Underline (Red):
Content: “Allen, T. W. (1994). The invention of the White race (Vol. 1). London andNew York: Verso. Allen, T. W. (1997). The invention of the White race (Vol. 2). London andNew York: Verso. “

Page 9, Underline (Red):
Content: “Crow, J. F. (2002, Winter). Unequal by nature: A geneticist’s perspective on human differences. Daedalus, 131(1), 81–88.”

Page 9, Underline (Red):
Content: “American Anthropological Association. (1998). American Anthropologi- cal Association statement on “race.” American Anthropologist, 100(3). Retrived from www.aaanet.org/stmts/racepp.htm

Page 9, Underline (Red):
Content: “D’Souza, D. (1996). The end of racism: Principles for a multiracial society. New York: Free Press.”

Page 10, Underline (Red):
Content: “Littlefield, A., Lieberman, L., & Reynolds, L. (1982). Redefining race: The potential demise of a concept in physical anthropology. Current Anthropology, 23, 641–656.”

Page 10, Underline (Red):
Content: “Graves, J. L., Jr. (2001). The emperor’s new clothes: Biological theories of race at the millennium. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. Graves, J. L., Jr. (2004). The race myth: Why we pretend race exists in America. New York: Dutton.”

Page 10, Underline (Red):
Content: “Haller, J. S., Jr. (1971). Outcasts from evolution: Scientific attitudes of racial inferiority, 1859-1900. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.”

Page 10, Underline (Red):
Content: “Hannaford, I. (1996). Race: The history of an idea in the West. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press and the Woodrow Wilson Center.”

Page 10, Underline (Red):
Content: “Harris, M. (1968). The rise of anthropological theory. New York:”

Page 10, Underline (Red):
Content: “Crowell.”

Page 10, Underline (Red):
Content: “Harrison, F. V. (1995). The persistent power of “race” in the cultural andpolitical economy of racism. Annual Review of Anthropology, 24,47–74. “

Page 10, Underline (Red):
Content: “Omi, M. A. (2001). The changing meaning of race. In N. J. Smelser, W. J.Wilson, & F. Mitchell (Eds.), America becoming: Racial trends andtheir consequences (Vol. 1, pp. 243–263). Washington, DC: NationalAcademies Press. Omi, M. A., & Winant, H. (1994). Racial formation in the United States(2nd ed.). New York: Routledge. “

Page 10, Underline (Red):
Content: “Jefferson, T. (1955). Notes on the state of Virginia. Chapel Hill: Univer- sity of North Carolina Press. (Original work published 1785)”

Page 10, Underline (Red):
Content: “Rapport, N., & Overing, J. (2000). Social and cultural anthropology: The key concepts. London: Routledge.”

Page 11, Underline (Red):
Content: “Thernstrom, S., & Thernstrom, A. (1999). America in Black and White: One nation indivisible. New York: Simon & Schuster.”

Page 11, Underline (Red):
Content: “Tylor, E. B. (1958). Primitive culture. New York: Harper & Row. (Orig-inal work published 1871)”

Page 11, Underline (Red):
Content: “Slotkin, J. S. (Ed.). (1965). Readings in early anthropology. London: Methuen.”

Page 11, Underline (Red):
Content: “Smedley, A. (1999a). Race and the construction of human identity. American Anthropologist, 100, 690–702.”

Page 11, Underline (Red):
Content: “Smedley, A. (2002b). Science and the idea of race: A brief history. In J. Fish (Ed.), Race and intelligence: Separating science from myth (pp. 145–176). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.”

Page 11, Underline (Red):
Content: “White, L. (1949). The science of culture. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux.”

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