Heidegger – The Question Concerning Technology

The Question Concerning Technology

by Martin Heidegger

[Heidegger, Martin. 1977. “The Question Concerning Technology.” In The Question Concerning Technology, and Other Essays, 3–35. Harper & Row.]

Points

Technology, to begin with, is not a thing, but rather a way of revealing truths.

  • “Modern technology too is a means to an end.” “We will master it. The will to mastery becomes all the more urgent the more technology threatens to slip from human control.” (pg 5)
  • There are four causes (ways of being responsible for something else) involved in tech’s means
    • causa materialis—the material, the stuff a thing is made from
    • causa formalis—the form, the material takes, the template
    • causa finalis—the intended end use, ritual, application, etc.
    • causa efficiens—who (or what) actual forms the material, the craftworker, miner, technician, etc.
      • All four causes work together to facilitate the technology’s occasioning (it’s coming onto being in its specific context)
      • Plato says: “every occasion for whatever passes over and goes forward into presencing from that which is not presencing is poiesis, is bringing-forth” (pg 10)
  • “Technology  is  a  mode  of  revealing.  Technology  comes  to presence  [West]  in the realm where revealing and unconcealment take place, where aletheia, truth, happens.” (pg 13)

So what’s the problem?

  • Modern technology is different because the type if revealing is different.
    • “What is modern technology? It too is a revealing. Only when we allow our attention to rest on this fundamental characteristic does that which is new in modern technology show itself to us.  [paragraph break ]  And yet the revealing that holds sway throughout modern technology does not unfold into a bringing-forth in the sense of poiesis. The  revealing that rules  in modern  technology  is a  chal­lenging  [Herausfordern], which puts to nature the unreasonable demand  that  it  supply  energy  that  can  be  extracted  and  stored as such.  [ … ]  The earth now reveals itself as a coal mining dis­trict, the soil as a mineral deposit.” (14)
  • This type of revealing is based on challenging. Whereas the old-school peasant “challenge the soil of the field” (15), new technologies demand that the materials in the earth (like coal) are always ready for use as “it is stockpiled; that is, it is on call, ready to deliver the sun’s warmth that is stored in it” (15)
    • H calls this standing-reserve
  • Since we do this, we tend to see the objects as only the resources contained in them, as an ordering revealing
    • in other words: “The unconcealment of the unconcealed has already come to pass whenever it calls man forth into the modes of revealing allotted to him. When man, in his way, from within unconcealment reveals that which  presences, he merely responds to the call of unconcealment even when he  contradicts it. Thus when man, investigating, observing, ensnares nature as an area of his own conceiving, he has already been claimed by a way of  revealing that challenges him to approach nature as  an  object  of research, until  even  the object disappears into the objectlessness  of standing-reserve” (19).
  • H calls this propensity in humans enframing.
    • “Enframing  means  the  gathering  together  of that  setting-upon which  sets  upon  man,  i.e.,  challenges  him  forth,  to  reveal  the real,  in  the  mode  of  ordering,  as  standing-reserve.  Enframing means  that way  of revealing  which  holds  sway  in  the  essence  of modern  technology  and  which  is  itself  nothing  technological” (20).
    • OR “the way in which the real reveals itself as standing-reserve” (23)
    • OR “Enframing  is  the  gathering  together  that  belongs  to  that setting-upon  which  sets  upon  man  and  puts  him  in  position  to reveal the real, in the  mode  of ordering,  as  standing-reserve” (24)
  • And Enframing is the essence of modern technology

DANGER!

  • Enframing creates a situation wherein humans see the world around around them as a “calculable complex of the effects of forces” (26). We see only resources standing-reserve but no objects in and of themselves.
  •  When we don;t see the objects as they are (in their truth), we fall for the illusion that humans are the only things around worth noting…
    • “as soon as what is unconcealed no longer concerns man even as object, but does so, rather, exclusively as standing-reserve [ … ] he comes to the point where he himself will have to be taken as standing-reserve. Meanwhile man …  exalts himself to the posture of lord of the earth. [ … ] This illusion gives rise in turn to one final delusion: It seems as though man everywhere and always encounters only himself” (26-27).
  • AND “the challenging Enframing not only conceals a former way of revealing, bringing-forth, but it conceals revealing itself and with it That wherein concealment, i.e., truth, comes to pass” (27)
  • “The rule of Enframing threatens man with the possibility that it could de denied him to enter into a more original revealing and hence to experience the call of a more primal truth” (28).
    • (yeah, but wtf is ‘truth,’ H?)
  • And FINALLY— “The coming to presence of technology threatens revealing, threatens it with the possibility that all revealing will be con­sumed in ordering and that everything will present itself only in the unconcealedness of standing-reserve” (33).

All is not lost

  • “So long as we represent technology as an instrument we remain held fast in the will to master it. We press on past the essence of technology.  [ paragraph break ]  When, however, we ask how the instrumental comes to presence as a kind of causality, then we experience the coming to presence as the destining of a revealing” (32).
  • Techne also used to mean “art,” so maybe art will be the ultimate savior?
  • And who knows, maybe “the frenziedness of technology may entrench itself every­ where to such an extent that someday, throughout everything technological, the essence of technology may come to presence in the coming-to-pass of truth” (35).

Techne—”techne  is  the  name  not  only  for  the  activities  and  skills  of  the craftsman,  but  also  for  the  arts  of  the  mind  and  the  fine  arts. Techne  belongs  to  bringing-forth,  to  poiesis;  it  is  something poietic.    [paragraph break ] The other point that we should observe with  regard  to  techne is even more important.  From earliest times  until  Plato the word techne is linked with the word  episteme.  Both  words  are names for  knowing  in  the  widest  sense.  They  mean  to  be  entirely  at home  in  something,  to  understand  and  be  expert  in  it.”  [ … ]   “It is as revealing, and not as manufactur­ing, that techne is a bringing-forth.” (pg 13)

Annotation Summary for: Heidegger – The Question Concerning Technology and Other Essays

Page 38, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The Question Concerning Te chnology”

Page 38, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” Allways of thinking, more or less perceptibly, lead through language in  a  manner  that  is  extraordinary.  We  shall  be questioning  con­cerning  technology,  and  in  so  doing  we  should  like  to  preparea  free relationship to  it.  The  relationship  will  be free  if  it  opens our  human  existence  to  the  essence  of  technology.1″

Page 39, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “essence  of  technology  is  by  no  means  any­thing  technological.  Thus we shall never  experience  our relation­ship to  the  essence of technology  so long  as we  merely  conceiveand  push forward  the  technological, put up  with  it,  or  evade it. Everywhere  we  remain  unfree  and  chained  to  technology,whether  we  passionately  affirm  or  deny  it.”

Page 39, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” But  we  are  deliveredover to  it in  the  worst  possible  way  when we  regard  it  as  some­thing neutral; for  this  conception  of it,2 to which  today  we  par­ticularly like to do homage, makes us utterly blind to  the essence of technology. ”

Page 39, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” Everyone  knows  the  two statements  that answer our question.  One  says :  Technology  is  a means  to an end.  The other  says: Technology is a human activity. The  two definitions  of technology  belong  together.  For  to  posit ends  and  procure  and  utilize  the  means  to  them  is  a  humanactivity. ”

Page 39, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The manufacture and utilization of equipment, tools, and machines, the manufactured and used things themselves, and the needs and ends that they serve, all belong to what tech-”

Page 40, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “nology  is.  The  whole  complex  of  these  contrivances  is  tech­nology.  Technology  itself  is  a  contrivance,  or,  in  Latin,  aninstrumentum.3 ”

Page 40, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The current conception of technology, according to which it is a means and a human activity, can therefore be called the in­ strumental and anthropological definition of technology.”

Page 40, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The instrumental definition of technology is indeed so uncannily correct that it even holds for modern technology, of which, iil other respects, we maintain with some justification that it is, in contrast to the older handwork technology, some­ thing completely diHerent and therefore new. Even the power plant with its turbines and generators is a man-made means to an end established by man. Even the jet aircraft and the high­ frequency apparatus are means to ends.”

Page 40, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “A radar station is of course less simple than a weather vane. To be sure, the construc­ tion of a high-frequency apparatus requires the interlocking of various processes of technical-industrial production.”

Page 40, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “But this much remains correct : modern technology too is a means to an end.”

Page 40, Underline (Blue):
Content: “modern  technology  too  is  a means  to  an  end.  ”

Page 40, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “That is why the instrumental conception of technology conditions every attempt to bring man into the right relation to technology. Everything depends on our manipulating technology in the proper manner as a means. We will, as we say, Uget” technology “spiritually in hand.” We will master it. The will to mastery becomes all the more urgent the more technology threatens to slip from human control.”

Page 40, Underline (Blue):
Content: “We will master it. The will to mastery becomes all the more urgent the more technology threatens to slip from human control.”

Page 41, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” themerely  correct  is  not  yet  the  true.  Only  the  true  brings  us  into a  free  relationship  with  that  which  concerns  us  from  out  of  its essence.”

Page 41, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Accordingly, the correct instrumental definition of tech­ nology still does not show us technology’s essence.”

Page 41, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” We  must ask:  What is the  instru­mental  itself?  Within  what  do  such  things  as  means  and  endbelong? ”

Page 41, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Wherever ends are pursued and means are employed, wherever instrumentality reigns, there reigns causality.”

Page 41, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “For centuries philosophy has taught that there are four causes:(1)  the  causa  materialis,  the  material,  the  matter  out  of  which, for example,  a  silver  chalice is  made;  (2)  the  causa  formalis,  the form,  the  shape  into  which  the  material  enters;  (3)  the  causafi nalis,  the  end,  for  example,  the  sacrificial  rite  in  relation  towhich the  chalice required is  determined as  to  its  form  and  mat­ter;  (4)  the  causa efficiens, which brings  about  the  effect  that  isthe fi nished, actual chalice, in this instance, the silversmith. What technology is, when represented  as a means, discloses  itself when we  trace instrumentality back  to  fourfold  causality. ”

Page 41, Note (Orange):
1. Raw materials
2. Form the materials take
3. Why they are made; purpose, end
4. Who (or what) actually forms the materials; craftsman

Page 41, Highlight (Yellow):
Content: “causa materialis, causa formalis, causa fi nalis, causa efficiens,”

Page 41, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “what  does  “cause”  really  mean?  From”

Page 42, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “whence does it come that the causal character of the four causes is so unifiedly determined that they belong together?”

Page 42, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “So long  as  we  do  not  allow  ourselves  to  go  into  these  ques­tions,  causality,  and  with  it instrumentality,  and with  the  latterthe  accepted  definition  of  technology,  remain  obscure  andgroundless. ”

Page 42, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The four causes are the ways, all belonging at once to each other, of being responsible for something else.”

Page 42, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “An example can clarify this. Silver is that out of which the silver chalice is made. As this matter (hyle), it is co-responsible for the chalice.”

Page 42, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The chalice is indebted to, i.e., owes thanks to, the silver for that out of which it consists.”

Page 42, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” As  a  chalice, that  which  is  indebted  to  the  silver  appearsin  the  aspect  of  a  chalice  and  not in that  of  a  brooch  or  a  ring. Thus  the  sacrificial  vessel  is  at  the  same  time  indebted  to  theaspect  (eidos)  of  chaliceness.”

Page 43, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “a  third  that  is  above  all responsible  forthe  sacrificial  vessel.  It  is  that  which  in  advance  confines  the chalice  within the  realm of  consecration  and  bestowal.6 Through this  the  chalice  is  circumscribed  as  sacrificial  vessel.”

Page 43, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “That which gives bounds, that which completes, in this sense is called in Greek telos, which is all too often translated as “aim” or “purpose/’ and so misinterpreted. The telos is responsible for what as matter and for what as aspect are together co-responsible for the sacrificial vessel.”

Page 43, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “finally there is a fourth participant in the responsibility for the finished sacrificial vessel’s lying before us ready for use, i.e., the silversmith-but not at all because he, in working, brings about the fi nished sacrificial chalice as if it were the effect of a making; the silversmith is not a causa efficiens.”

Page 43, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The silversmith is co-responsible as that from whence the sacrificial vessel’s bringing forth and resting-in-self take and retain their fi rst departure.”

Page 43, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The three previously mentioned ways of being responsible owe thanks to the pondering of the silver­ smith for the “that” and the “how” of their coming into appear­ ance and into play for the production of the sacrificial vessel.”

Page 44, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Today we are too easily inclined either to understand being responsible and being indebted moralistically as a lapse, or else to construe them in terms of effecting. In either case we bar to ourselves the way to the primal meaning of that which is later called causality.”

Page 44, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “According  to  our  example,  they  are  responsible  for  thesilver  chalice’s lying  ready  before  us as a  sacrificial vessel.  Lyingbefore and lying ready (hypokeisthai) characterize the presencing of something that presences. ”

Page 44, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “They set it free to that place and so start it on its way, namely, into its complete arrival.”

Page 44, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The prin­ cipal characteristic of being responsible is this starting something on its way into arrival.”

Page 44, Note (Orange):
Facilitating a thing’s thinging?

Page 45, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “we now give this verb “to occasion” a more inclusive meaning, so that it now is the name for the essence of causality thought as the Greeks thought it. But in what, then, does the playing in unison of the four ways of occasioning play?”

Page 45, Underline (Blue):
Content: “But in what, then, does the playing in unison of the four ways of occasioning  play?  They  let what is  not yet present arrive  intopresencing.  Accordingly,  they  are  unifiedly  ruled  over  by  a bringing  that  brings  what  presences  into  appearance. ”

Page 45, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” They  let what is  not yet present arrive  intopresencing.  Accordingly,  they  are  unifiedly  ruled  over  by  a bringing  that  brings  what  presences  into  appearance. ”

Page 45, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Plato tells us what this bringing is in a sentence from the Symposium (20sb) “Every occasion for whatever passes over and goes forward into presencing from that which is not presencing is poiesis, is bringing-forth”

Page 45, Highlight (Yellow):
Content: “poiesis,”

Page 45, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” Physis  also,  the  arising  of  something from  out  of  itself,  is  a  bringing-forth,  poiesis.  Physis  is  indeedpoiesis  in  the  highest  sense. ”

Page 45, Highlight (Yellow):
Content: “Physis”

Page 46, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The  modes of occasioning,  the  four  causes,  are  at play,  then,within  bringing-forth. ”

Page 46, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Occasioning has to do with the presencing [Anwesen] of that which at any given time comes to appearance in bringing-forth.”

Page 47, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “What  has  the  essence  of  technology  to  do  with  revealing?  Theanswer:  everything.”

Page 47, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Technology is therefore no mere means. Technology is a way of revealing. It is the realm of revealing, i.e., of truth.12”

Page 47, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “”technology” stems from the Greek. Technikon means that which belongs to techne. We must observe”

Page 48, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “two things with respect to the meaning of this  word.  One is that techne  is  the  name  not  only  for  the  activities  and  skills  of  thecraftsman,  but  also  for  the  arts  of  the  mind  and  the  fi ne  arts. T echne  belongs  to  bringing-forth,  to  poiesis;  it  is  somethingpoietic. The  other point that we should observe with  regard  to  techneis even more important.  From earliest times  until  Plato the word techne is linked with the word  episteme.  Both  words  are names for  knowing  in  the  widest  sense.  They  mean  to  be  entirely  at home  in  something,  to  understand  and  be  expert  in  it. ”

Page 48, Highlight (Yellow):
Content: “techne”

Page 48, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” Techne is  a  mode  of aletheuein.  It  reveals  whateverdoes  not  bring  itself  forth  and  does  not  yet  lie  here  before  us, whatever can look and turn  out  now  one  way  and now  another. ”

Page 48, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “It is as revealing, and not as manufactur­ ing, that techne is a bringing-forth.”

Page 48, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Technology  is  a  mode  of  revealing.  Technology  comes  topresence  [West]  in the realm where revealing and unconcealmenttake place, where aletheia, truth, happens. ”

Page 48, Underline (Blue):
Content: “Technology  is  a  mode  of  revealing.  Technology  comes  topresence  [West]  in the realm where revealing and unconcealmenttake place, where aletheia, truth, happens. ”

Page 48, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “one  can  object  that  it  indeed  holds  for  Greekthought  and  that  at  best  it  might  apply  to  the  techniques  of the  handcraftsman,  but  that  it  simply  does  not  fit  modern machine-powered  technology.  And  it is  precisely  the  latter  and ”

Page 49, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “it alone that is the disturbing thing, that moves us to ask the question concerning technology per se.”

Page 49, Stamp (Quote!)

Page 49, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “What is modern technology? It too is a revealing. Only when we allow our attention to rest on this fundamental characteristic does that which is new in modern technology show itself to us.”

Page 49, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “And yet the revealing that holds sway throughout modern technology does not unfold into a bringing-forth in the sense of poiesis.”

Page 49, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” The  revealing that rules  in modern  technology  is a  chal­lenging  [Herausfordern],13 which puts to nature the unreasonable demand  that  it  supply  energy  that  can  be  extracted  and  stored as such. ”

Page 49, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The earth now reveals itself as a coal mining dis­ trict, the soil as a mineral deposit.”

Page 50, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The work of the peasant does not challenge the soil of the fi eld. the  cultivation  of the  field has  come  underthe  grip  of  another  kind  of  setting-in-order,  which  sets  upon[stellt]  natureY  It  sets  upon  it  in  the  sense  of  challenging  it. Agriculture is now the mechanized food industry.  Air is now  setupon  to  yield  nitrogen,  the  earth  to  yield  ore,  ore  to  yielduranium,  for  example;  uranium  is  set  upon  to  yield  atomicenergy, which can be released either for destruction or for peace­ful use. ”

Page 50, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” It is stockpiled; that is, it is on call,ready to  deliver the  sun’s  warmth that  is stored  in  it. ”

Page 51, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The hydroelectric plant is not built into the Rhine River as was the old wooden bridge that joined bank with bank for hundreds of years. Rather the river is dammed up into the power plant. What the river is now, namely, a water power supplier, derives from out of the essence of the power station.”

Page 51, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The revealing that rules throughout modern technology has the character of a setting-upon, in the sense of a challenging­ forth.”

Page 51, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “That challenging happens in that the energy concealed in nature is unlocked, what is unlocked is transformed, what is transformed is stored up, what is stored up is, in turn, distributed, and what is distributed is switched about ever anew.”

Page 51, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Regulating and securing even become the chief characteristics of the challenging revealing.”

Page 52, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Whatever stands by in the sense of standing-reserve no longer stands over against us as object.”

Page 52, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Yet an airliner that stands on the runway is surely an object. it conceals itself as to what and how it is. Revealed, it stands on the taxi strip only as standing-reserve, inasmuch as it is ordered to en­ sure the possibility of transportation.”

Page 52, Underline (Red):
Content: “Hegel’s definition of the machine as an autonomous tool.”

Page 53, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Who accomplishes the challenging setting-upon through which what we call the real is revealed as standing-reserve? Obviously, man.”

Page 53, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “But man does not have control over un­ concealment itself, in which at any given time the real shows itself or withdraws. The  fact  that  the  real  has  been  showingitself in the light  of  Ideas  ever  since  the time  of Plato,  Plato  didnot bring  about.  The  thinker  only  responded  to  what  addresseditself to him.”

Page 53, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Only to the extent that man for his part is already challenged to exploit the energies of nature can this ordering revealing happen.”

Page 53, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “If man is challenged, ordered, to do this, then does not man himself belong even more originally than nature within the standing-reserve? The forester who, in the wood, measures the felled timber and to all appearances walks the same forest path in the same way as did his grandfather is today commanded by profit-making in the lumber industry, whether he knows it or not.”

Page 53, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” Since  man  drives  tech­nology  forward, he takes  part in ordering  as  a  way  of revealing. But  the un concealment  itself,  within  which  ordering  unfolds,  is never a human handiwork, any  more  than  is the  realm  throughwhich  man  is  already  passing  every  time  he as a  subject  relates to an object. ”

Page 53, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Wherever man opens his eyes and ears, unlocks his heart, and gives himself over to meditating”

Page 54, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “and striving, shaping and working, entreating and thanking, he finds himself everywhere already brought into the unconcealed.”

Page 54, Stamp (Quote!)

Page 54, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The unconcealment of the unconcealed has already come to pass whenever it calls man forth into the modes of revealing allotted to him.”

Page 54, Underline (Blue):
Content: “The unconcealment of the unconcealed has already come to pass whenever it calls man forth into the modes of revealing allotted to him.”

Page 54, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “When  man,  in  his  way,  from  within  unconcealmentreveals  that which  presences,  he merely  responds  to  the  call  ofunconcealment  even  when  he  contradicts  it.  ”

Page 54, Underline (Blue):
Content: “When man, in his way, from within unconcealment reveals that which presences, he merely responds to the call of unconcealment even when he contradicts it.”

Page 54, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Thus  when  man,investigating,  observing,  ensnares  nature  as  an  area  of  his  ownconceiving,  he  has  already  been  claimed  by  a  way  of  revealing that  challenges him  to  approach nature as  an  object  of research, until  even  the  object  disappears  into  the  objectlessness  ofstanding-reserve. ”

Page 54, Underline (Blue):
Content: “Thus  when  man,investigating,  observing,  ensnares  nature  as  an  area  of  his  ownconceiving,  he  has  already  been  claimed  by  a  way  of  revealing that  challenges him  to  approach nature as  an  object  of research, until  even  the  object  disappears  into  the  objectlessness  ofstanding-reserve. ”

Page 54, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Modern technology as an ordering revealing is, then, no merely human doing. Therefore we must take that challenging that sets upon man to order the real as standing-reserve in accordance with the way in which it shows itself. That challenging gathers man into ordering. This gathering concentrates man upon or­ dering the real as standing-reserve. We  now  name  that  challenging  claim  which  gathers  manthither  to order the self-revealing as standing-reserve:  FlGe-stell”[En framing] .17 ”

Page 55, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Enframing  means  the  gathering  together  of that  setting-uponwhich  sets  upon  man,  i.e.,  challenges  him  forth,  to  reveal  the real,  in  the  mode  of  ordering,  as  standing-reserve.  Enframing means  that way  of revealing  which  holds  sway  in  the  essence  of modern  technology  and  which  is  itself  nothing  technological. ”

Page 55, Highlight (Yellow):
Content: “Enframing”

Page 55, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “all those things that are so familiar to us and are standard parts of an assembly, such as rods, pistons, and chassis, belong to the technological. The assembly itself, how­ ever, together with the aforementioned stockparts, falls within”

Page 56, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “the  sphere  of  technological  activity;  and  this  activity  always merely  responds  to  the  challenge  of  Enframing,  but  it  nevercomprises Enframing  itself  or  brings  it  about.”

Page 56, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “man in the technological  ageis, in  a  particularly  striking  way,  challenged  forth  into  revealing. That revealing concerns nature, above all,  as  the chief  storehouseof  the  standing  energy  reserve Because theory, sets nature up to exhibit itself as a coherence of forces calculable in advance, it therefore orders its experiments precisely for the purpose of asking whether and how nature reports itself when set up in this way.”

Page 57, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The modern physical theory of nature prepares the way first not simply for technology but for the essence of modern tech­ nology.”

Page 57, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” The  Greek  thinkers  already knew  of this  when  theysaid:  That  which  is  earlier  with  regard  to  the  arising  that  holdssway  becomes  manifest  to  us  men  only  later.  That  which  is primally early  shows  itself only  ultimately  to  men.20″

Page 57, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Chronologically speaking, modern physical science begins in the seventeenth century. In contrast, machine-power technology develops only in the second half of the eighteenth century. But modern technology, which for chronological reckoning is the later, is, from the point of view of the essence holding sway within it, the historically earlier.”

Page 58, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Because  the  essence  of modern  technology  lies  in  Enframing, modern technology must  employ  exact physical science. Throughits  so doing, the deceptive  illusion arises  that modern  technology is applied  physical  science.  This  illusion  can  maintain  itself only so  long  as  neither  the  essential  origin  of  modern  science  nor indeed  the  essence  of  modern  technology  is  adequately  found out through  questioning. ”

Page 58, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “We are questioning concerning technology in order to bring to light our relationship to its essence. The essence of modern tech­ nology shows itself in what we call Enframing.”

Page 58, Underline (Blue):
Content: “We are questioning concerning technology in order to bring to light our relationship to its essence. The essence of modern tech­ nology shows itself in what we call Enframing.”

Page 58, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Where do we find ourselves brought to, if now we think one step further regarding what Enframing itself actually is? It is nothing technological, nothing on the order of a machine. It is the way in which the real reveals itself as standing-reserve.”

Page 58, Underline (Blue):
Content: “Enframing is the way in which the real reveals itself as standing-reserve.”

Page 59, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Enframing  is  the  gathering  together  that  belongs  to  thatsetting-upon  which  sets  upon  man  and  puts  him  in  position  toreveal the real, in the  mode  of ordering,  as  standing-reserve. ”

Page 59, Underline (Blue):
Content: “Enframing  is  the  gathering  together  that  belongs  to  thatsetting-upon  which  sets  upon  man  and  puts  him  in  position  toreveal the real, in the  mode  of ordering,  as  standing-reserve. ”

Page 59, Highlight (Yellow):
Content: “Enframing”

Page 59, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “As the one who is challenged forth in this way, man stands within the essential realm of Enframing.”

Page 59, Underline (Blue):
Content: “As the one who is challenged forth in this way, man stands within the essential realm of Enframing.”

Page 59, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “We shall call that sending-that-gathers [versammelde Schicken] which fi rst starts man upon a way of revealing, destining [Geschick]”

Page 59, Note (Orange):
Wait. Destiny? Fate? That doesn’t fit with anything else H says about anything anywhere

Page 59, Highlight (Yellow):
Content: “destining”

Page 59, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “It is from out of this destining that the essence of all history [Geschichte] is determined.”

Page 59, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Enframing, as a challenging-forth into ordering, sends into a way of revealing. Enframing is an ordaining of destining, as is”

Page 59, Underline (Blue):
Content: “Enframing, as a challenging-forth into ordering, sends into a way of revealing. Enframing is an ordaining of destining, as is”

Page 60, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “every way of revealing. Bringing-forth, poiesis, is also a destining in this sense.”

Page 60, Underline (Blue):
Content: “every way of revealing. Bringing-forth, poiesis, is also a destining in this sense.”

Page 60, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “destining is never a fate that compels. For man becomes truly free only insofar as he belongs to the realm of destining and so becomes one who listens and hears [Horender] , and not one who is simply constrained to obey [Horiger] .”

Page 60, Note (Orange):
Oh.  I guess.

Page 60, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The essence of modern technology lies in Enframing. Enfram­ ing belongs within the destining of revealing. These sentences express something different from the talk that we hear more frequently, to the effect that technology is the fate of our age, where “fate” means the inevitableness of an unalterable course.”

Page 61, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “when we once open ourselves expressly to the essence of technology, we fi nd ourselves un­ expectedly taken into a freeing claim.”

Page 61, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The essence of technology lies in Enframing. Its holding sway belongs within destining. Since destining at any given time starts man on a way of revealing, man, thus under way, is continually approaching the brink of the possibility of pursuing and pushing forward nothing but what is revealed in ordering, and of deriv­ ing all his standards on this basis.”

Page 61, Underline (Blue):
Content: “Since destining at any given time starts man on a way of revealing, man, thus under way, is continually approaching the brink of the possibility of pursuing and pushing forward nothing but what is revealed in ordering, and of deriv­ ing all his standards on this basis.”

Page 61, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “In whatever way the destining of revealing may hold sway, the unconcealment in which everything that is shows itself at any given time harbors the danger that man may quail at the un­ concealed and may misinterpret it.”

Page 61, Underline (Blue):
Content: “In  whatever  way  the  destining  of revealing  may  hold  sway, the  unconcealment  in  which  everything  that  is  shows  itself  atany given time harbors the danger that man may quail at the  un­concealed  and  may  misinterpret  it.  ”

Page 61, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “In a similar way the unconcealment in accordance with which nature presents itself as a calculable complex of the effects of forces can indeed permit correct determinations i but precisely through these successes the danger can remain that in the midst of all that is correct the true will withdraw.”

Page 61, Stamp (Quote!)

Page 61, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The destining of revealing is in itself not just any danger, but danger as such.”

Page 61, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “This danger attests itself to us in two ways. As soon as what is unconcealed no longer concerns man even as”

Page 61, Underline (Blue):
Content: “As soon as what is unconcealed no longer concerns man even as”

Page 62, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “object,  but  does  so,  rather,  exclusively  as  standing-reserve,  andman  in the  midst of objectlessness is nothing  but  the  orderer  ofthe  standing-reserve,  then  he  comes  to  the  very  brink  of  it precipitous  fall;  that  is,  he comes  to  the  point  where  he  himself will have  to  be taken as standing-reserve.  Meanwhile  man,  pre­cisely as the  one  so threatened,  exalts  himself  to  the  posture  of lord of the earth. In this way the impression comes to prevail thateverything  man  encounters  exists only  insofar  as  it is  his  con­struct.  This  illusion  gives  rise  in  turn  to  one  final  delusion:  It seems  as though  man  everywhere  and  always  encounters  only himself. In truth,  however, precisely  nowhere does man today  any longer  encounter  himself,  i.e.,  his  essence.  Man  stands  so  de­cisively in attendance on the challenging-forth of Enframing thathe does  not apprehend Enframing as  a claim, that he fails to  seehimself  as the  one spoken to, and hence  also fails  in  every  wayto hear in what respect he ek-sists, from out of his essence, in the realm of an exhortation or address, and thus can  never  encounteronly  himself. ”

Page 62, Underline (Blue):
Content: “object, but does so, rather, exclusively as standing-reserve, he comes to the point where he himself will have to be taken as standing-reserve. Meanwhile man, exalts himself to the posture of lord of the earth.”

Page 62, Stamp (Star (Frame, Red))

Page 62, Underline (Blue):
Content: “This illusion gives rise in turn to one final delusion: It seems as though man everywhere and always encounters only himself.”

Page 62, Underline (Blue):
Content: “In truth, however, precisely nowhere does man today any longer encounter himself, i.e., his essence.”

Page 62, Stamp (Star (Frame, Red))

Page 62, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Enframing”

Page 62, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “As  a  destining,  it banishes  man  into  that  kind  of  revealing  which  is  an  ordering. Where this  ordering  holds  sway, it drives  out every  other  possi-bility of revealing.”

Page 62, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “the challenging Enframing not only conceals a former way of revealing, bringing-forth, but it conceals revealing itself and with it That wherein unconcealment, i.e., truth, comes to pass.”

Page 62, Underline (Blue):
Content: “the challenging Enframing not only conceals a former way of revealing, bringing-forth, but it conceals revealing itself and with it That wherein unconcealment, i.e., truth, comes to pass.”

Page 62, Note (Orange):
So enframing, ie viewing things as their raw material components (standing reserve) does not allow the material to reveal itself (poiesis?) and therefore is not revealing the truth
(but wtf is the truth, H?)

Page 63, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Enframing blocks the shining-forth and holding-sway of truth. The  destinil1g  that  sends  into  ordering  is  consequently  the  ex­treme  q.afiger. ”

Page 63, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” What  is dangerous  is not technology.  There  is nod<::m6nry  of  technology,  but  rather  there  is  the  mystery  of  its:  essence. The essence of technology, as a destining of revealing, isthe danger.  The transformed meaning  of the word  “Enframing”will  perhaps  become  somewhat  more  familiar  to  us  now  if  wethink Enframing  in the  sense of destining and danger. ”

Page 63, Stamp (Star (Frame, Red))

Page 63, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The rule of Enframing threatens man with the possibility that it could be denied to him to enter into a more original revealing and hence to experience the call of a more primal truth.”

Page 63, Underline (Blue):
Content: “The rule of Enframing threatens man with the possibility that it could be denied to him to enter into a more original revealing and hence to experience the call of a more primal truth.”

Page 63, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “If the  essence  of technology,  Enframing,  is the  extreme  danger, and  if  there  is  truth  in  H6lderlin’s  words,  then  the  rule  of Enframing  cannot  exhaust itself solely in blocking all  lighting-up of  every  revealing,  all  appearing  of  truth.  Rather,  precisely  the essence  of  technology  must  harbor  in  itself  the  growth  of  the saving power. But in  that case, might  not an adequate  look into what Enframing is as a  destining  of revealing bring  into appear­ance the saving power in its arising? ”

Page 63, Stamp (I don’t like this)

Page 64, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “But how shall we behold the saving power in the essence of technology so long as we do not consider in what sense of “essence” it is that Enframing is actually the essence of tech­ nology?”

Page 64, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Thus far we have understood “essence” in its current meaning. “essence” means whatness, ”

Page 64, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “For example, what pertains to all kinds of trees-oaks, beeches, birches, firs-is the same “treeness.””

Page 64, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” Enframing  is  never the essence of technology in the  sense  of a genus. Enframing is a way of revealing  having  the  character ofdestining,  namely,  the  way  that  challenges  forth.”

Page 64, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The revealing that brings forth (poiesis) is also a way that has the character of destining.”

Page 64, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The challenging reveal-”

Page 65, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “ing  has  its  origin  as  a  destining  in  bringing-forth.  But  at  thesame  time  Enframing,  in  a  way  characteristic  of  a  destining, blocks poiesis.”

Page 65, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Thus  Enframing,  as  a  destining  of  revealing,  is  indeed  the essence  of  technology,  but  never  in  the  sense  of  genus  andessentia. If we pay heed  to this,  something  astounding  strikes  us: It is  technology  itself  that  makes  the  demand  on  us  to  think  in another  way  what  is  usually  understood  by  “essence.”  But  in what  way? ”

Page 65, Underline (Blue):
Content: “Thus  Enframing,  as  a  destining  of  revealing,  is  indeed  the essence  of  technology,  but  never  in  the  sense  of  genus  andessentia. ”

Page 66, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “And  if we now  ponder  morecarefully  than we did before what it is that actually endures  and perhaps  alone  endures,  we  may  venture  to  say:  Only  what  is granted endures. That which endures primally out of the earliestbeginning is what grants.25”

Page 66, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “As the essencing of technology, Enframing is that which en­ dures.”

Page 66, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “accordingto everything that has been said, Enframing is, rather, a destiningthat  gathers  together  into  the  revealing  that  challenges  forth. Challenging  is anything but  a  granting.  50 it seems,  so  long  as we  do  not  notice  that  the  challenging-forth  into  the  ordering of the real as standing-reserve still remains a  destining  that starts man  upon  a  way  of revealing.”

Page 67, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Thus the coming to presence of technology harbors in itself what we least suspect, the possible arising of the saving power.”

Page 67, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Everything, then, depends upon this: arising and that, recollecting, we watch over it. How can this happen? Above all through our catching sight of what comes to presence in technology, instead of merely staring at the tech­ nologicarSo”

Page 67, Stamp (Quote!)

Page 67, Stamp (Star (Frame, Red))

Page 67, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “So  long  as we represent technology  as an  instrument,we remain held  fast  in  the  will  to  master  it.  We  press  on  pastthe essence of technology.”

Page 67, Underline (Blue):
Content: “So  long  as we represent technology  as an  instrument,we remain held  fast  in  the  will  to  master  it.  We  press  on  pastthe essence of technology.”

Page 67, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “When, however, we ask how the instrumental comes to pres­ ence as a kind of causality, then we experience this coming to presence as the destining of a revealing.”

Page 67, Underline (Blue):
Content: “When, however, we ask how the instrumental comes to pres­ ence as a kind of causality, then we experience this coming to presence as the destining of a revealing.”

Page 67, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “When we consider, finally, that the coming to presence of the essence of technology comes to pass in the granting that needs and uses man so that he may share in revealing, then the follow­ ing becomes clear:”

Page 68, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The  essence  of technology is in a lofty sense  ambiguous.  Suchambiguity points to the mystery of all revealing, i.e., of truth. On the one hand, Enframing challenges forth into the frenzied­ness  of ordering  that  blocks  every  view  into  the  coming-to-passof revealing and so radically endangers the relation to the essenceof truth. On  the other hand, Enframing comes  to  pass for its part in  the granting  that  lets  man  endure-as  yet  unexperienced,  but  per­haps  more  experienced  in  the  future-that  he  may  be the  one who  is  needed  and  used  for  the  safekeeping  of the  coming  to presence  of  truth.:n  Thus  does  the  arising  of  the  saving  power appear. ”

Page 68, Stamp (Star (Frame, Red))

Page 68, Stamp (Star (Frame, Red))

Page 68, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “The coming to presence of technology threatens revealing, threatens it with the possibility that all revealing will be con­ sumed in ordering and that everything will present itself only in the unconcealedness of standing-reserve.”

Page 68, Underline (Blue):
Content: “The coming to presence of technology threatens revealing, threatens it with the possibility that all revealing will be con­ sumed in ordering and that everything will present itself only in the unconcealedness of standing-reserve.”

Page 68, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Human activity can never directly counter this danger. Human achievement alone can never banish it. But human reflection can ponder the fact that”

Page 69, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “all saving power must be of a higher essence than what is en­ dangered, though at the same time kindred to it.”

Page 69, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “There  was a  time when it was not technology  alone that borethe name techne. Once that revealing that brings forth truth intothe  splendor of radiant  appearing  also was called techne.”

Page 69, Stamp (Quote!)

Page 69, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Once there was a time when the bringing-forth of the true into the beautiful was called techne. And the poiesis of the fine arts also was called techne.”

Page 70, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Whether art may be granted this highest possibility of its essence in the midst of the extreme danger, no one can tell. Yet we can be astounded. Before what? Before this other possibility: that the frenziedness of technology may entrench itself every­ where to such an extent that someday, throughout everything technological, the essence of technology may come to presence in the coming-to-pass of truth.”

Page 70, Underline (Blue):
Content: “Whether art may be granted this highest possibility of its essence in the midst of the extreme danger, no one can tell. Yet we can be astounded. Before what? Before this other possibility: that the frenziedness of technology may entrench itself every­ where to such an extent that someday, throughout everything technological, the essence of technology may come to presence in the coming-to-pass of truth.”

Page 70, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Such a realm is art. But certainly only if reflection on art, for its part, does not shut its eyes to the constellation of truth after which we are questioning.”

Page 70, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Thus questioning, we bear witness to the crisis that in our sheer preoccupation with technology we do not yet experience the coming to presence of technology, that in our sheer aesthetic­ mindedness we no longer guard and preserve the coming to presence of art. Yet the more questioningly we ponder the es­ sence of technology, the more mysterious the essence of art becomes. The closer we come to the danger, the more brightly do the ways into the saving power begin to shine and the more question­ ing we become. For questioning is the piety of thought.”

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