Burgess—Nation, Book, Medium

Nation, Book, Medium: New Technologies and Their Genres

by Miranda Burgess

[Burgess, Miranda. 2009. “Nation, Book, Medium: New Technologies and Their Genres.” In Genres in the Internet: Issues in the Theory of Genre, 193–219. Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing.]

Points

  • This essay “treats genre less as a self-evident proposition than as an analytic category that is undergoing (re)definition, a scholarly mode that has itself become the object of study”
  • “In arguing that the self-reflexive discourse of new media shares both a history and a form with the scholarly discourse about new media, this essay makes the case for the utility of genre theory in charting the process of media succession and in examining the experience of media change” (193-94).
    • emphasis is on experience, defined here as “the interface between history and the subject, or the perceptual and analytic exchange between the flow of events and their narrative rendition” (194).
  • “relatively few have sought to remake genre theory as what Cohen calls “a theory of behavior” (Cohen 2003: iv). By attending in a specifically historical way to what I will be calling the genre of new media history, this essay aims to propose, if not a general theory of generic motivation, then at least an account of genre formation in the context of the experience of change” (194).

Genre, Model, Method, Theory

  • “Marshall McLuhan addressed the citation of older media by newer ones in his famous aphorism that “The ‘content’ of any medium is always another medium” (McLuhan 1964: 23) (195).
  • “N. Katherine Hayles characterizes the relations between contemporaneously existing forms as a “medial ecology”: all media, and thus all mediated works, are to be understood in a context of interaction within and against one another (Hayles 2002: 33).”
  • “I wish to emphasize the pragmatic character of genre in my own account of new media history, which will argue for the recognition of genres in process where a common ground of what I will call, for lack of a better term, narrative form can be found among writers and new media producers. But I want, at the same time, to underline the role played by genre both as an experiential reflection and a motor of historical change” (197).

New Media Histories

meta-media:the scholarship on new media 1991-2000

  • “In the Anglo-American world of the 1990s, salons and newspapers rang to the clash of competing voices as academics, journalists, politicians and public intellectuals argued about new media […]
  • “Jean Baudrillard and Jameson, were engaged with a corresponding set of problems, which they characterized as a loss of cultural depth, of a sense of location, of a historical sense, of a sense of the real (Jameson 1991; Baudrillard 1988).1” (199).
  • the new media histories of the 1990s reference a past whose characteristic modes of social organization (the nation) and of writing and reading (the book) exist in an analytic proximity—indeed, an intimacy—that yields to a slippage between them.”

New media: The net.goths and their websites in the 1990s

  • “The slippage of nation and book that typifies the meta-media of the 1990s is even more apparent in new media practice itself: in the social networking websites produced by net.goths at the end of the twentieth century” (203).
  • “As in Rheingold’s account of the WELL, the participants in Nola-Goth.org envisioned their use of electronically mediated communication as a way to establish a form of direct democracy, which they described as a characteristic American public practice of the past and represented as having been lost. As in Doheny-Farina’s more skeptical analysis, however, they conceded the technology’s inadequacies by meeting in person to socialize and debate, and their electronic interactions remained nostalgic for the same material spaces: the town hall, coffeehouse, and tavern” (205).

New media and meta-media, 1790-1820s: Walter Scott’s situation

  • “conjunction of (old) books with nations may well be an inherited expression of crisis, one that is not, however, transhistorical, but rather post-Romantic: a form of crisis founded at the historical moment when print becomes ubiquitous (St Clair 2004: 10–13). In this context, it may be seen that the old book that is an apparent generic requirement of new media history does indeed “come from” another genre, a precursor narrative of media change in which old books and new compete on the battleground of national community” […]
  • “The “Net.Goth Directory book,” in particular, is a visibly, even exaggeratedly antiquarian object […]
  • it resembles an earlier book: the “Mighty Book, With iron clasp’d, and with iron bound,” belonging to “the wizard, Michael Scott” in Walter Scott’s 1805 narrative poem The Lay of the Last Minstrel (Scott 1805: 2.21.8–9; 6.26.25). The antiquity of the Directory’s book thus refers doubly to its history: to the hypermediated forms of Romantic nationalism associated with Scott as well as to the interlocking conceptions of literary and national tradition on which new media history from the turn of the nineteenth century to the turn of the twenty-first has drawn in its nation—and canon—making” (208).
  • “Scott’s poem intervenes, moreover, in a context that forms a striking parallel to the emergence and spread of new communications media in the 1990s: that of the widening of reading audiences and growth in periodical writing at the turn of the nineteenth century that William St Clair has termed the rise of the “reading nation” (St Clair 2004)” […]
  • “The wooden frame of the press was replaced by iron, hand- fed broadsheets were succeeded by the mechanized feed of continuous paper, and, after 1811, the hand-worked press began giving way to steam (Steinberg 1959: 198–206)” (209).

    Page 221, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “As these examples suggest, new media debate at the turn of the nineteenth century shares with the new media discussions of the 1990s a governing oppo- sition between materiality and dematerialization, substance and insubstantiality, in which the nation and old books serve as reassuring ballast.”

The genre of new media history

  • “These distinct situations share not only a narrative arc and a metaphoric register but also, I would suggest, a set of causes. To read the writings of new media historians from the turn of the nineteenth century is to find an explicit argument about the dependency of nations on literacy and the subjection of nations to the vagaries of reading. To some extent this Romantic argument may have been self-interested, rooted in very personal anxieties about the fate of literature, and poetry in particular, in what seemed to be the coming age of mass literacy and ephemeral written forms (see e.g. Keen 2000; Siskin 1998: 130–152). In this way, it parallels the hinted but rarely voiced concern of late twentieth-century commentators, academic and otherwise, about their own displacement by new media and new content—from the depopulation of academic courses and the corresponding loss of intellectual property to the tabloidization and disappearance of newspapers in the new day of the blogosphere (see Noble 1998; Liu 2004: 30; Angwin & Hallinan 2005)” (213).
  • the emergence of genre is a behavioral response to change. It is the outcome of the mingling of purpose (a response to the experience of history) and of purposiveness (the subject’s self-consciousness about his or her encounter with the forms in which history is understood and narrated) with a narrative response that, broadly, shares a common form, an arc, figure, or set of references” (214, italics and bold added).
  • “to what extent can it be suggested that genre as a category, at once a hallmark of continuity and a register of evolution, is a writer’s (failed?) response to subjectively experienced agonies of change (as a loss of agency)? (215).

Conclusions

  • For Scott and for others, the nation and the book, whether figured as the traditionary objects of nostalgia or as threatened ideals in need of restoration or defense, serve as compensatory objects in the face of medial and social history. Both are always already superseded; the question is only whether they should or can return, and in what form. For these writers, … however, genre itself—the shape of the mutually metaphorical narratives of nation and book and its function as a common ground of reference, conversation, even understanding—is the real recompense for change, even as it helps to make visible the workings and experience of history” (216).

Abstract

This essay examines some ‘new media’ practices of the 1990s together with late twentieth-century critical commentaries on computer-mediated communication and electronic textuality. It compares both with discussions of changes in communications technologies and readerships from the turn of the nineteenth century. Based on observations about narrative form—especially the mutual metaphoricity of the nation and the book—in conjunction with the associated qualities of self-consciousness about sociability, historicity, and mediatedness that emerge from this study, I propose an understanding of genre formation as a characteristic, and under-recognized, response to the experience of media change and outline the possible contributions a more self-conscious theory of genre could make to existing theories of media, mediation, and media succession.

Annotation Summary for: Burgess – Giltrow & Dieter – Genres in the Internet (2009)

Page 203, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Nation, book, medium New technologies and their genres Miranda Burgess”

Page 203, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “This essay examines contemporary responses to the explosion of communications technologies in the last years of the twentieth century. It does so in two primary ways. First, it brings together scholarly commentaries on what tended, in the 1990s, to be referred to as “new media”—computer-mediated communication and electronic textuality—with the comments produced by new media practitioners themselves. Second, as this union of first- with second-order texts suggests, the essay ranges across two distinct kinds of media objects while arguing that the com-monalities are as worthy of attention as the differences. ”

Page 203, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “What allows me to bring these objects together, and to make an object of inquiry of their common ground, is genre.”

Page 203, Stamp (Star (Frame, Red))

Page 203, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “this essay, treats genre less as a self-evident proposition than as an analytic category that is undergoing (re)definition, a scholarly mode that has itself become the object of study.”

Page 203, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “In arguing that the self-reflexive discourse of new media shares both a history and a form with the”

Page 203, Underline (Blue): Content: “In arguing that the self-reflexive discourse of new media shares both a history and a form with the”

Page 204, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “scholarly discourse about new media, this essay makes the case for the utility of genre theory in charting the process of media succession and in examining the experience of media change.”

Page 204, Underline (Blue): Content: “scholarly discourse about new media, this essay makes the case for the utility of genre theory in charting the process of media succession and in examining the experience of media change.”

Page 204, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “experience, which I would like to defineas the interface between history and the subject, or the perceptual and analytic exchange between the flow of events and their narrative rendition. ”

Page 204, Highlight (Yellow): Content: “experience,”

Page 204, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Fredric Jameson’ classic understanding of this interface as the subject’s encounter with a process that “sets inexorable limits to individual as well as collective praxis” and “can be apprehended only through its effects,” I depart from his rendering of history as “the experience of Necessity” in “the inexorable form of events” (Jameson 1981: 102).”

Page 204, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Rather I wish to emphasize, as in Slavoj Žižek’s re-reading of the encoun- ter, the sense-making narrative function that defines the difference between history apprehended as the present and the past (Žižek 1991: 221–222).”

Page 204, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “In defining genres as a “codification of discursive properties” within “a society,” Tzvetan Todorov made room for an understanding of narrative genre as at once an enunciation of the experience of history, simultaneously personal and social, and itself a historical force (Todorov 1976: 162).”

Page 204, Highlight (Cyan): Content: ““it is not ‘genres’ that have disappeared, but the genres of the past, and they have been replaced by others” (Todorov 1976: 160).”

Page 204, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “At the same time, he noted that “genres come… from other genres… by inversion, by displacement, by combination” (Todorov 1976: 161).”

Page 204, Highlight (Cyan): Content: ““meta-genre,” or “situated language about situated language” (Giltrow 2001: 190).”

Page 204, Highlight (Yellow): Content: ““meta-genre,””

Page 204, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “relatively few have sought to remake genre theory as what Cohen calls “a theory of behavior” (Cohen 2003: iv).”

Page 204, Stamp (Star (Frame, Red))

Page 204, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “By attending in a specifically historical way to what I will be calling the genre of new media history, this essay aims to propose, if not a general theory of generic motivation, then at least an account of genre formation in the context of the expe- rience of change.”

Page 205, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “2. Genre: Model, method, theory”

Page 205, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Throughout the 1990s, a debate raged, among scholars and practitioners alike, about the gains and losses made possible or inevitable by new media. Both sides in the debates turned to what they represented as past media objects and social formations—the book and the nation—as figures for the history they are conceiving and represent- ing, whether with longing or loathing, enmity or desire.”

Page 205, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Marshall McLuhan addressed the citation of older media by newer ones in his famous aphorism that”

Page 205, Highlight (Cyan): Content: ““The ‘content’ of any medium is always another medium” (McLuhan 1964: 23).”

Page 206, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “N. Katherine Hayles characterizes the relations between contempo- raneously existing forms as a “medial ecology”: all media, and thus all mediated works, are to be understood in a context of interaction within and against one another (Hayles 2002: 33).”

Page 206, Highlight (Yellow): Content: ““medial ecology”:”

Page 207, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “limn the argument can also be made that new media historians, precisely in locating the medium as an irreducible category of analysis and proceeding to limn its formal complexities and chart its historical mutations, are already doing genre theory, at least in a rudimentary sense.”

Page 207, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “I wish to emphasize the pragmatic character of genre in my own account of new media history, which will argue for the recognition of genres in process where a common ground of what I will call, for lack of a better term, narrative form can be found among writers and new media producers.”

Page 207, Stamp (Star (Frame, Red))

Page 207, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “But I want, at the same time, to underline the role played by genre both as an experiential reflection and a motor of historical change.”

Page 208, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “In what follows, I offer a series of three case studies that provide a basis for identifying the mutual metaphoricity of nations and books as the formal hallmark of an enduring genre of new media historiography”

Page 208, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “I show how this feature appears in late twentieth-century meta-media and in new media productions contemporary with these. I then turn to a narrative corollary at the turn of the nineteenth century: the hypermediated printed works of the poet and novelist Walter Scott and theircontext, the origins and spread of the first truly mass print culture. ”

Page 208, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “By examiningthe national and textual longings that characterize these discourses, I illustrate the emergence of a common narrative form amid progressive and conservative, aca- demic and popular, “primary” and “secondary” responses to technological change at two distinct moments in the history of Anglo-American social and intellectual life.”

Page 208, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “In the final section of the paper, viewing this formal synchrony through the lens of genre theory will allow me to propose answers to several historical ques- tions: about the consequences of the mutually metaphoric linkage of nation and book for an understanding of new media, social formations, and the genres that narrate them; and about the connections between the production, circulation, and consumption of texts and the forging, evolution, and persistence of national communities.”

Page 209, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “New media histories: Three overviews 3. Meta-media: The scholarship on new media, 1991–2000 3.1”

Page 209, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “In the Anglo-American world of the 1990s, salons and newspapers rang to the clash of competing voices as academics, journalists, politicians and public intellectuals argued about new media.”

Page 209, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Jean Baudrillard and Jameson, were engaged with a corresponding set of problems, which they characterized as a loss of cultural depth, of a sense of location, of a historical sense, of a sense of the real (Jameson 1991; Baudrillard 1988).1”

Page 209, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Robert Coover and Sven Birkerts predicted the “end of books””

Page 210, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Rheingold, a journalist and public intellectual, is one of America’s most influential early adopters, having been a founding member of Stewart Brand’s Whole Earth ’Lectronic Link, or WELL, a San Francisco Bay Area-based system of electronic bulletin boards and chatrooms, and a theorist of “smart mobs.””

Page 210, Highlight (Cyan): Content: ” Rheingold’s The Virtual Community: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier (1993) makes two concessions to new media skeptics: he recognizes the danger to citizen autonomy posed by corporations’ seeking to assume governance of cyberspace and he acknowledges the possibility that peopleparticipating in online social networks might simply “forget” that electronically mediated communication is an “illusion” of presence (Rheingold 1993: 15, 299)”

Page 210, Underline (Red): Content: “Rheingold’s The Virtual Community: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier (1993)”

Page 210, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “For him the WELL is a “cozy little world,” a “virtual village,” and an “authentic community” that bestows a “sense of place” on its participants—a space “where people can rebuild the aspects of commu- nity that were lost when the malt shop became a mall” (Rheingold 1993: 2–3, 26).”

Page 210, Underline (Red): Content: “Doheny-Farina’s The Wired Neighborhood (1996),”

Page 210, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “For Doheny-Farina, the advent of online communities is just another symptom of the fact that “local public space has largely disappeared” from America, surviving only in inferior virtual projections such as “Main Street” interviews broadcast during presidential campaigns (Doheny-Farina 1996: 52).”

Page 210, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “While he agrees with Rheingold about the desirability of a communitarian vision, Doheny-Farina nevertheless maintains that the new communications technologies will only take American society farther than ever from such a way of life.”

Page 211, Highlight (Cyan): Content: ““The Screener’s Maps,” a 1994 essay by comparative literature scholar and textual theorist Mireille Rosello, compares writing and reading to “ways of appropriating space” (Rosello 1994: 131–132).”

Page 212, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “From Bolter to Valovic, the new media histories of the 1990s reference a past whose characteristic modes of social organization (the nation) and of writing and reading (the book) exist in an analytic proximity—indeed, an intimacy—that yields to a slippage between them.”

Page 213, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “New media: The net.goths and their websites in the 1990s 3.2”

Page 213, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “The slippage of nation and book that typifies the meta-media of the 1990s is evenmore apparent in new media practice itself: in the social networking websites pro-duced by net.goths at the end of the twentieth century. The net.goths of the 1990s were self-identified participants in the technologically enabled sectors of what online historian and industrial music DJ Pete Scathe called “the goth… subcul-ture,” whose corresponding modes of dress, literatures, and distinctive “musical movement” all make appearances on the Internet (Scathe a)”

Page 214, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “London DJ and ’zine publisher Sexbat, celebrated the powerof electronically mediated communication in terms whose vestigial attachment to text-based forms of online communication marks their origin in the 1990s. “[I]t never really occurred to me all those years ago that such a thing [as the World Wide Web] would ever exist,” he writes in the archived introduction to the Direc-tory. “There were only about eight of us, and we didn’t have [the text-based bulle-tin-board system, from which net.goth culture originated,] usenet—we just relied on empty bottles of passable claret and the tides” (Sexbat). ”

Page 215, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Breitreiter’s Nola-Goth.org, for example, advertised itself simultaneously as a virtual and a physical community: “an IRC channel on Undernet[,] … available for online events” and “a volunteer project conceived at the New Orleans gothic community town meetings” (Zeph; Breitreiter b). As in Rheingold’s account of the WELL, the participants in Nola-Goth.org envisioned their use of electronically mediated communication as a way to establish a form of direct democracy, which they described as a characteristic American public practice of the past and repre-sented as having been lost. As in Doheny-Farina’s more skeptical analysis, however, they conceded the technology’s inadequacies by meeting in person to socialize and debate, and their electronic interactions remained nostalgic for the same material spaces: the town hall, coffeehouse, and tavern. ”

Page 216, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Nola-Goth.org

Page 216, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Their parallel national nostalgia was equally complicated by its alliance with earlier communications technologies rather than with any avowedly unmediated kind of past. As in their rendering of nostalgia for American public space, the Nola-Goths’ ambiguous use of historical references registered the limits both of the technological present and of the tradi- tions their present had replaced.”

Page 216, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “ambivalent nostalgia”

Page 216, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “But the site also operated socially, as a hub in cyberspace, a virtual meeting place for goths who might otherwise, whether from local scarcity or from transnational dispersal, have difficulty finding one another.”

Page 217, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “The Directory embodied, practically and electronically, the coalescence of textual and social commentary that characterizes the printed accounts of the Internet and electronic textuality in the same period.”

Page 217, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Its navigation instructions blurred together print culture with geography, nations with books, emphasizing to users that its producers found the two categories inextricable.”

Page 217, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “In the terms of media theory, the relationship, at once para-sitical and parodic, between these net.goth sites and superseded social and media forms can be understood as a remediation of the nation and the book comparable to Birkerts’s or Bolter’s. It may also, however, at least in technologically literate cases such as Pan’s and Breitreiter’s, be conceived as a remediation of contempo-rary new media history, here understood as among the superseded artifacts of print”

Page 217, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “New media and meta-media, 1790–1820s: Walter Scott’s situation 3.3”

Page 217, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Genre as a transcription of the experience of change: as this reference indicates, I would like now to begin a slow turn to the question of causality, both in the sense”

Page 218, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “of Jameson’s “absent cause” (history) and in the more immediate sense of the sub-ject’s (narrative) experience (Jameson 1981: 102). To that end, I want to recall theslippage between nation and book in the new media history I have been discuss-ing. ”

Page 218, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “This conjunction of (old) books with nations may well be an inherited expression of crisis, one that is not, however, transhistorical, but rather post-Romantic: a form of crisis founded at the historical moment when print becomes ubiquitous (St Clair2004: 10–13). In this context, it may be seen that the old book that is an appar-ent generic requirement of new media history does indeed “come from” another genre, a precursor narrative of media change in which old books and new compete on the battleground of national community.”

Page 218, Stamp (Star (Frame, Red))

Page 218, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “The “Net.Goth Directory book,” in particular, is a visibly, even exaggeratedly antiquarian object.”

Page 218, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “it resembles an earlier book: the “Mighty Book, With iron clasp’d, and with iron bound,” belonging to “the wizard, Michael Scott” in Walter Scott’s 1805 narrative poem The Lay of the Last Minstrel (Scott 1805: 2.21.8–9; 6.26.25). The antiquity of the Directory’s book thus refers doubly to its history: to the hypermediated forms of Romantic nationalism associated with Scott as well as to the interlockingconceptions of literary and national tradition on which new media history from the turn of the nineteenth century to the turn of the twenty-first has drawn in its nation- and canon-making. ”

Page 219, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Scott’s poem inter-venes, moreover, in a context that forms a striking parallel to the emergence and spread of new communications media in the 1990s: that of the widening of reading audiences and growth in periodical writing at the turn of the nine- teenth century that William St Clair has termed the rise of the “reading nation” (St Clair 2004). ”

Page 219, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “The wooden frame of the press was replaced by iron, hand- fed broadsheets were succeeded by the mechanized feed of continuous paper, and, after 1811, the hand-worked press began giving way to steam (Steinberg 1959: 198–206).”

Page 220, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “The writings of Samuel Taylor Coleridge about readers and nationhood in the Biographia Literaria (1817) offer a striking example of this tension between old and new books and an exemplary instance of its emerging narrative form. The second chapter offers an explicit narrative cau-sality: of the new literary “language, mechanized as it were into a barrel organ,” ofliterature produced chiefly by the “manufacturing” of what has come to seem an anarchic as well as a mechanically autonomous press, and of what Coleridge calls the resulting “multitude of books and the general diffusion of literature” across the face not just of “the world of letters” but indeed of the world at large (Coleridge 1983: 38–39). As printed texts diffuse, as Coleridge has it, their readerships diffuse in their turn. The mechanized manufacture of new books and the neglect of old ones provides metaphors for the dispersal of the one and the amorphousness and deterritorialization of the other (Coleridge 1983: 38). ”

Page 221, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “As these examples suggest, new media debate at the turn of the nineteenth century shares with the new media discussions of the 1990s a governing oppo- sition between materiality and dematerialization, substance and insubstantiality, in which the nation and old books serve as reassuring ballast.”

Page 222, Highlight (Cyan): Content: ” “distressed genres”—the creation of “new antiques” by means of which “the author hopes to author a context as well as an artifact” and, in the case of Romantic new media histories, succeeded in an especially lasting way (Stewart 1994: 67).7″

Page 222, Highlight (Yellow): Content: ” “distressed genres””

Page 223, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “The genre of new media history .”

Page 223, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “These distinct situations share not only a narrative arc and a metaphoric register but also, I would suggest, a set of causes. To read the writings of new media historians from the turn of the nineteenth century is to find an explicit argument about the dependency of nations on literacy and the subjection of nations to thevagaries of reading. ”

Page 223, Stamp (Star (Frame, Red))

Page 223, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “To some extent this Romantic argument may have been self- interested, rooted in very personal anxieties about the fate of literature, and poetry in particular, in what seemed to be the coming age of mass literacy and ephemeral written forms (see e.g. Keen 2000; Siskin 1998: 130–152). In this way, it paral- lels the hinted but rarely voiced concern of late twentieth-century commentators, academic and otherwise, about their own displacement by new media and new content—from the depopulation of academic courses and the corresponding loss of intellectual property to the tabloidization and disappearance of newspapers in the new day of the blogosphere (see Noble 1998; Liu 2004: 30; Angwin & Hallinan 2005).”

Page 223, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “they share, and their net.goth counterparts share, what seems to be a deep-felt sense of the broadly social as well as the highly personal effects of media change.”

Page 224, Stamp (Star (Frame, Red))

Page 224, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “It is this shared understanding of the agency of media change, I want to sug-gest, that makes a genre of new media history. To put it another way, the emergence of genre is a behavioral response to change. It is the outcome of the mingling of pur-pose (a response to the experience of history) and of purposiveness (the subject’sself-consciousness about his or her encounter with the forms in which history is understood and narrated) with a narrative response that, broadly, shares a common form, an arc, figure, or set of references.”

Page 224, Underline (Blue): Content: ” the emergenceof genre is a behavioral response to change. ”

Page 224, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “I want, too, to recall Moretti’s claims about history and genre, in which changes in narrative form serve as the index of historical change, especiallyin the form of “social conflict” (Moretti 2005: 92). It is in this context that the most illuminating distinction emerges between the new media historiography of the 1990s and its turn-of-the-nineteenth-century counterparts.”

Page 225, Highlight (Cyan): Content: ” If Jameson is right in defining history as “what hurts,” the painful experience of social conflict and change that all narrative seeks to mediate, then Moretti’s theory of genre as an index of change would nonetheless mean for new media historiography that changes within the genre code a sense ofloss—indeed, that loss, and especially an experienced loss of agency, is coded in the emergence and persistence of the genre itself (Jameson 1981: 102).”

Page 225, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “to what extent can it be suggested that genre as a category, at once a hallmark of continuity and a register of evolution, is a writer’s (failed?) response to subjectively experienced agonies of change (as a loss of agency)?”

Page 226, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Conclusion .”

Page 226, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “Benedict Anderson has famously argued that the nineteenth-century nation began to be imagined through a cooperation between the territorialization of vernacu- lar language and the developing conception of “homogeneous empty time,” both propagated through the mechanized production and commercialized spread of the printed word (Anderson 1991: 24).”

Page 226, Highlight (Cyan): Content: “revisiting thestory in this way lets me re-read and retell the story of this genre and its emer-gence and persistence as supplementary to and inseparable from mediation and its social effects: specifically, from change experienced as loss”

Page 226, Highlight (Cyan): Content: ” What matters more to my own history than the particulars of mutually metaphorical nations and books is the emergence, selection, and persistence ofthe narratives that recur to them and the ways in which they make visible not only the conflicts and fissures of medial, and social, change but also the continu-ing evolution of the ways in which these changes have been experienced. These ways are indistinguishable from the selection and processing of narratives, the narration and reproduction of history.”

Page 226, Underline (Red): Content: “Anderson, Benedict. 1991. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origins and Spread of Nationalism. 2nd ed. London: Verso.”

Page 227, Underline (Red): Content: “Baudrillard, Jean. 1988. “Simulacra and Simulations.” In Jean Baudrillard: Selected Writings, Mark Poster (ed), 166–184. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Baudrillard, Jean. 1996. The Perfect Crime, Chris Turner (trans). London: Verso.”

Page 227, Underline (Red): Content: “Cohen, Ralph. 2003. “Introduction.” Theorizing Genres I. New Literary History 34: iv-xiv.”

Page 227, Underline (Red): Content: “Hayles, N. Katherine. Writing Machines. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, 2002.”

Page 227, Underline (Red): Content: “Jameson, Fredric. 1981. The Political Unconscious: Narrative as a Socially Symbolic Act. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.”

Page 227, Underline (Red): Content: “Jameson, Fredric. 1991. Postmodernism, Or, the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.”

Page 228, Underline (Red): Content: “McLuhan, Marshall. 1964. Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. New York: McGraw.”

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