Smith & Mantz – Do Cellular Phones Dream of Civil War?

Do Cellular Phones Dream of Civil War?: The Mystification of Production and the Consequences of Technology Fetishism in the Eastern Congo

by James H. Smith & Jeffrey W. Mantz

[ Smith, James H. & Jeffrey W. Mantz. 2006. “Do Cellular Phones Dream of Civil War?: The Mystification of Production and the Consequences of Technology Fetishism in the Eastern Congo” in Inclusion and Exclusion in the Global Arena (ed. Max Kirsch), Routledge, New York City. Pg. 71-94]

Points & Quotes:

After comparing two epigraphs:

  • From City of Bits by William Mitchell
  • Comment Ben Wisner about Democratic Republic of Congo city Goma after it was destroyed by a volcanic eruption…

“what ties the city of Goma and the city of bits together is columbite-tantalite, known in the eastern Congo region as coltan. This silicate (from which the heat-resistant powder tantalum is extracted) is at present the most effective current conductor in existence, and a crucial component of the microchips found in all digital technology (cell phones, laptops, pagers, Sony PlayStation, iPods, etc.) as well as a host of other electronic devices, including hear- ing aids and pacemakers. It is estimated that the eastern region of the DRC is home to 80 percent of the world’s reserves of coltan (Moyroud & Katunga 2002, 159).” (71)

“Coltan is bought by middlemen frequently operating under the auspices of one or another local militias, who in turn typically sell to Belgian and other expatriate traders, often in the Rwandan capital of Kigali. Those intermediaries then sell to buyers in the United States, Japan, and Europe, who will extract the tantalum powder from the ore and refine and process. […] much of this work seems to be done in former uranium processing plants in Kazakhstan, for eventual sale in China [IPIS 2002, 8]).” (74-75)

“The promise of an interconnected world, of fluid identities— indeed the possibility of postmodern thought, and the notion that we live today in a postmodern world—arguably has as its precondition this commodity and its particular qualities (of density and relative accessibility, for example), as well as the labor relations, trade conditions, and internal fragmentation that have made this commodity available to the world at an affordable price. […] The fact that most of the world’s supply of coltan is located in the Congo also means that the cultural dispositions associated with postmodernism (the emphasis on subjectivity, ambiguity, flexibility, multivocality, and the generative power of consumption as a form of agency and politics) are dependent on genocide, ecocide, incarceration, and … production in the Congo.” (76)

“Part of what we are arguing here is that in order to understand the world today we need to find ways of drawing conceptual connections between disconnected parts of that world […] we believe that the commodity coltan is perfect for thinking through the postmodern moment because, far from overflowing sumptuously with meaning (like sugar), it is comparatively meaningless, undistinguished, and invisible. More accurately, coltan is systematically rendered meaningless and invisible by the production process and by the network of political and corporate bodies that control its distribution.” (78)

“In the film The Matrix, the protagonist, Neo, discovers that the world in which he lives is a computer-generated mirage, that the physical world beyond this simulacrum is an all too real nightmare, where humans are allowed to exist because they are the only remaining natural resource. […]
The truth of our times is that we are living in this Matrix now: (1) we are increasingly dependent on virtual realities, as Mitchell suggests, (2) these virtual realities are grounded in real human terror, slavery, incarceration, and world destruction somewhere, and (3) the rooted- ness of these virtual worlds in production and cannibalism (both in a metaphoric and a literal sense: for instance, reports of Mai Mai cannibalism as a form of counter-state production in the DRC) is systematically concealed from us, partly by virtue of the fetish form in which technology presents itself as a sui generis world-historic force. Any social theory that proceeds from virtual worlds as existing realities of their own accord (an analysis of the social-psychological, and even economic, implications of the online game and world Everquest, for example), detached from materiality and production, is choosing the Matrix as its reality, its home, and its sustenance. Doing so ignores the increasingly obvious fact that this virtual reality proceeds from work that is—in its current organization—rapidly bringing the underside of the matrix (dehumanization, implosion of the state, and ecocide) into being as objective global reality.” (86)

Annotation Summary for Title of Work

Page 1, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “DO CELLULAR PHONES DREAM OF CIVIL WAR? !e Mysti”cation of Production and the Consequences of Technology Fetishism in the Eastern Congo”

Page 1, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “James H. Smith and Je!rey W. Mantz”

Page 1, Underline (Red):
Content: “William J. Mitchell, City of Bits: Space, Place and the Infobahn”

Page 1, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Does”

Page 2, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “one perhaps need a new name for a new kind of city: isolatedby disintegration of the national state administrative and eco-nomic network? Maintained by the economic activity of foreign relief agencies, militias, and peace keepers? At risk to a wide variety of natural and technological hazards because of the deterioration of managerial capacity, economic viability, and infrastructure? Sarajevo? Kandahar? Mogadishu? Now: Goma?”

Page 2, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “INTRODUCTION: CITIES OF BITS VERSUS CITIES IN BITS: COLTAN AND THE DIGITAL DIVIDE”

Page 2, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “In Mitchell’s now commonplace argument about the globally inte-grative functionality of digital technology, social life is said to have been unleashed from materiality, and human experience made to %oat seductively, if not mockingly, above and beyond pedestrian stones and timbers. Here all of the optimism of the Enlightenment, and the atten-dant enthusiasm for civil society, open forums, transcendent reason, technological progress, and the realization of an ancient promise of freedom and democracy1 is fused with the sense of contingent inde-terminacy, ambiguity, and impending collective mutation that are hallmarks of postmodernism. “

Page 2, Underline (Magenta):
Content: “Motivating all of this is the familiar, modernist belief that technology is enabling the evolution of a new”

Page 3, Underline (Magenta):
Content: “kind of person whose immanent nature will eventually become a telos for the entire world. “is inchoate subject is not, strictly speaking, a biological or material entity, and is not one but many, fragmented and disembodied in a way at once empowering and alienating. A per-son who, without necessarily realizing that anything has happened, annihilates such parochial stumbling blocks as national borders, inconvenient airport checks, the body, and gridlock, rendering them super%uous, and herself sublime (if also di&cult to identify). “

Page 3, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “”e city of Goma is the setting for a starkly opposite rendition ofthe human struggle. For one, the so-called thereness of Goma is notopen to doubt, despite the fact that these days, there really is very little there (which, as we will see, gives a dark twist to the currently popu-lar notion that nonplaces have become one of the primary products of globalization [Ritzer 2004]).3 “

Page 3, Underline (Red):
Content: “[Ritzer 2004]).3”

Page 4, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “”e Congolese residents of Goma o$en say that God became angry with the city’s inhabitants for housing Mobutu and the Hutu genocid-aires, and later for allowing Rwandan foreigners to run the town and expropriate its wealth, and so decided to just be done with the place: in 2002, the nearby volcano erupted, destroying the town and burying it in molten lava.”

Page 4, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “What is most interesting for our purposes is that in Goma, there has been little freedom (indeed, more o$en than not, there has been slavery) from exactly the same moment that Mitchell’s new world—the city of bits inaugurated by the digital age—blossomed into being. “is is not a coincidence, for what ties the city of Goma and the city of bits together is columbite-tantalite, known in the eastern Congo region as coltan. “is silicate (from which the heat-resistant powder tantalum is extracted) is at present the most e!ective current conduc-tor in existence, and a crucial component of the microchips found in all digital technology (cell phones, laptops, pagers, Sony PlayStation, iPods, etc.) as well as a host of other electronic devices, including hear-ing aids and pacemakers. It is estimated that the eastern region of the DRC is home to 80 percent of the world’s reserves of coltan (Moyroud & Katunga 2002, 159). Despite some clamoring on the part of environ-mental NGOs (nongovernmental organizations), and even some Hol-lywood celebrities (Leonardo DiCaprio, Lucy Liu) concerned with the impact of mining on wildlife (t hough seldom with the loss of humanlife), DRC coltan appears to be the predominant variety traded in an elaborately layered and unregulated transnational market. “

Page 4, Underline (Blue):
Content: “what ties the city of Goma and the city of bits together is columbite-tantalite, known in the eastern Congo region as coltan. “is silicate (from which the heat-resistant powder tantalum is extracted) is at present the most e!ective current conduc-tor in existence, and a crucial component of the microchips found in all digital technology (cell phones, laptops, pagers, Sony PlayStation, iPods, etc.) as well as a host of other electronic devices, including hear-ing aids and pacemakers. It is estimated that the eastern region of the DRC is home to 80 percent of the world’s reserves of coltan (Moyroud & Katunga 2002, 159).”

Page 4, Underline (Red):
Content: “(Moyroud & Katunga 2002, 159).”

Page 4, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “elaborately layered and unregulated transnational market. Coltan is bought by middlemen frequently operating under the auspices of one or another local militias, who in turn typically sell toBelgian and other expatriate traders, o$en in the Rwandan capital of Kigali.”

Page 4, Underline (Blue):
Content: “Coltan is bought by middlemen frequently operating under the auspices of one or another local militias, who in turn typically sell to Belgian and other expatriate traders,”

Page 4, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “”ose intermediaries then sell to buyers in the United States, Japan, and Europe, who will extract the tantalum powder from the ore and re#ne and process it for the construction of digital devices (pro- cessing is conducted in diverse parts of the world, including the United States, Europe, and Asia, but these days much of this work seems to be”

Page 4, Underline (Blue):
Content: “”ose intermediaries then sell to buyers in the United States, Japan, and Europe, who will extract the tantalum powder from the ore and re#ne and process”

Page 4, Underline (Blue):
Content: “much of this work seems to be”

Page 5, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “done in former uranium processing plants in Kazakhstan, for eventual sale in China [IPIS 2002, 8]).”

Page 5, Underline (Blue):
Content: “done in former uranium processing plants in Kazakhstan, for eventual sale in China [IPIS 2002, 8]).”

Page 5, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” At one point, Citibankand other multinationals were negotiating directly with the RCD, theRwandan-backed army that was ruthlessly occupying that part of the Congo, plundering villages, and forcing their residents into slave labor camps to acquire this substance. “

Page 6, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “What made this so ironic was the fact that the extremely dense and heavy silicate that Mkapa bought and sold is the material bedrock on which the entire digital age, and everything associated with it, isfounded. “e promise of an interconnected world, of %uid identities—indeed the possibility of postmodern thought, and the notion that we live today in a postmodern world—arguably has as its precondition this commodity and its particular qualities (of density and relative accessi-bility, for example), as well as the labor relations, trade conditions, and internal fragmentation that have made this commodity available to the world at an a!ordable price. Clearly, the globally shared experiences of deterritorialization, multiplicity, and simulacrality are fueled by com-puterization, as Mitchell points out in his elaboration of the existen-tial issues that emerge from the experience of being online. “e fact that most of the world’s supply of coltan is located in the Congo also means that the cultural dispositions associated with postmodernism (t he emphasis on subjectivity, ambiguity, %exibility, multivocality, and the generative power of consumption as a form of agency and politics) are dependent on genocide, ecocide, incarceration, and perhaps most important for those seeking an antidote to the overriding focus on consumption in contemporary thought, production in the Congo. “

Page 6, Underline (Blue):
Content: “”e promise of an interconnected world, of %uid identities—indeed the possibility of postmodern thought, and the notion that we live today in a postmodern world—arguably has as its precondition this commodity and its particular qualities (of density and relative accessi-bility, for example), as well as the labor relations, trade conditions, and internal fragmentation that have made this commodity available to the world at an a!ordable price. “

Page 6, Underline (Blue):
Content: ” “e fact that most of the world’s supply of coltan is located in the Congo also means that the cultural dispositions associated with postmodernism (t he emphasis on subjectivity, ambiguity, %exibility, multivocality, and the generative power of consumption as a form of agency and politics) are dependent on genocide, ecocide, incarceration, and”

Page 6, Underline (Blue):
Content: “production in the Congo.”

Page 6, Underline (Red):
Content: “David Harvey (1990),”

Page 6, Underline (Red):
Content: “Frederic Jameson’s argument in Postmodernism, or,the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism [1991”

Page 6, Underline (Red):
Content: “David Graeber (2001)”

Page 7, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Despite the concrete speci#city of Goma, there was something post-modern about it, for there we encountered a populous, bustling cityoperating, as if by magic, in absentia—in particular, with very little infrastructure. “

Page 7, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” Many were decked out in jew-elry, much of it gold; these people had returned from Rwanda becausethey did not want to lose access to the lucrative mineral trade. Manystores were empty, but the real business was located behind the shops: there young men sat si$ing through coltan and gold, cleaning and separating the stones, then loading them into gunnysacks for trans-port to Rwanda. “

Page 7, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “We also found a pseudostate operating in perfect simulacrum: fake visas that no RCD o&cial would accept once we le$ the town in which they were issued, fake money (mostly American, as Congolese money was banned, and”

Page 8, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “American money is used to facilitate the international mineral trade), and oceans of bureaucracy whose only purpose seemed to be to drivehome, to the “citizens,” the fundamental good sense of cutting through this mess by ultimately bribing “state” o&cials. “

Page 8, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “GLOBAL ACCOUNTING”

Page 8, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Part of what we arearguing here is that in order to understand the world today we need to #nd ways of drawing conceptual connections between disconnected parts of that world, and one way to do this is to follow in the footsteps of Sidney Mintz (1985), who traced the connection between produc-tion and consumption through a particular object (sugar), showing how tastes, ideas, sentiments, and material processes (such as class and state formation) in Europe were rooted in productive processes else-where. “

Page 8, Underline (Blue):
Content: “Part of what we arearguing here is that in order to understand the world today we need to #nd ways of drawing conceptual connections between disconnected parts of that world, “

Page 8, Underline (Red):
Content: “Sidney Mintz (1985),”

Page 8, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” We seek to do for coltan and postmodernity what Mintz did for sugar and modernity, and we believe that the commodity coltan is perfect for thinking through the postmodern moment because, far from over%owing sumptuously with meaning (like sugar), it is com-paratively meaningless, undistinguished, and invisible. More accu-rately, coltan is systematically rendered meaningless and invisible bythe production process and by the network of political and corporate bodies that control its distribution. “

Page 8, Underline (Blue):
Content: ” we believe that the commodity coltan is perfect for thinking through the postmodern moment because, far from over%owing sumptuously with meaning (like sugar), it is com-paratively meaningless, undistinguished, and invisible. More accu-rately, coltan is systematically rendered meaningless and invisible bythe production process and by the network of political and corporate bodies that control its distribution”

Page 8, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” What we are calling for, then, isnot simply a new way of looking at the world as interconnected, but for a whole new #eld of study devoted to understanding it. Following on a host of others, we refer to this as global accounting, an emergent #eld of inquiry that combines political economy and cultural geography with classical anthropology and sociology. “

Page 8, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “We take our cue from Marx, who in Capital (1976 [1867]) sought to unravel the “mystical nature of the commodity” by thoroughly accounting the processes of produc- tion, distribution, and consumption in which objects were engaged.”

Page 8, Underline (Red):
Content: “Marx,”

Page 8, Underline (Red):
Content: “Capital (1976 [1867])”

Page 8, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “THE POLITICAL AND CULTURAL ECONOMY OF COLTAN”

Page 8, Underline (Red):
Content: “Arjun Appadurai’s”

Page 8, Underline (Red):
Content: “(1986)”

Page 9, Underline (Magenta):
Content: ” Academic interest in the relationship between culture and globalization is largely dominated by Appadurai’s (1990) ubiquitously cited essay on the “%ows” of things, people, and ideas over tumultuous but meaningfully constituted “scapes” (for Appadurai, ethnoscapes, mediascapes, technoscapes, #nanscapes, and ideoscapes are some example).”

Page 9, Underline (Magenta):
Content: “Some have even suggested that the scape be used to explain a range of other transnational processes and %ows, as with Brennan’s “sexscapes,” a concept she uses to make sense of the sex tourism industry in the Dominican Republic (Brennan 2004).”

Page 9, Underline (Red):
Content: ” (Brennan 2004). “

Page 10, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” the meanings of commodities cannot be understood solely in terms of their positions in a global economy, but must be ana-lyzed in relation to localized systems of meaning, which change overtime. “us, the meaning of coltan for Congolese is partly derived from the fact that mining coltan is symbolically and practically opposed to agriculture, and is associated as well with the destruction of local forests. It is tied up in the meaning of the city, and of connection to the world community because coltan mining has transformed Con-golese cities into food-producing areas for the countryside. “

Page 10, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “In many ways there is nothing particularly special about coltan, in that it is not essentially di!erent from all of the other resources that have historically been expropriated from the Congo, such as gold, cop-per, and rubber; indeed, a transnational system of extraction and vio-lence has shaped the region for generations, and would seem to override the meaning of any single commodity (see, for example, Hochschild 1998). Coltan is just one part of a tapestry of violence that is extremely complex, and which is epitomized by the widespread cases of rape and “

Page 11, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “cannibalism committed on indigenous Congolese, non-Congolese Afri- cans, and United Nations personnel—phenomena that have their own symbolic economies.”

Page 11, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “CULTURAL ECONOMIES OF WAR”

Page 12, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “”e names and num-bers of the parties involved in the war are virtually impossible for an outsider to follow, and even Congolese speculate constantly about the true origins and backers of various militias and splinter groups said to be the false creations of foreign leaders who manufacture them to justify the continued presence of their occupying armies.”

Page 12, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “”e boundaries of the new territories that are being forged throughout the continent o$en bear no relation to the nation-state, and the categories state and nation have thus lost their former meaning and analytical function.”

Page 13, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” in this context, apparently autochthonous rebellions and social movements are o$en merely the face of foreign armies squaring o! against each other, and nation-states and multina-tional corporations combine to instigate and exacerbate fragmentation at all levels of social organization, all the way down to lineage dynam-ics. In the process, humanitarianism and imperialism become indis-tinguishable, as the United States funds and supplies the Rwandan army, which in turn consolidates its position over the eastern Congo, and expropriates vital resources from the region.”

Page 14, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “THE CULTURAL DIMENSIONS OF COLTAN”

Page 14, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “coltan is at the center of a multitude of social and political transformations that are by no means fully understood.”

Page 14, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “”e central question is to what extent, and in what ways, are Congolese framing the changes wrought by civil war and economic devastation in such a way as to forge meaningful social ties? How, for example, has coltan mining and trade a!ected local”

Page 15, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “forms of social organization, and are new forms of community emerg- ing among miners in the forest, and among families who have long depended on these now absent male laborers?”

Page 15, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “A focused ethnographic analysis of miners and the home communities that depend on them is the only way to truly answer these questions.”

Page 15, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “Filip De Boeck’s (1996, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2004) work has focused on how diamond mining in the western DRC has exacerbated generational con%ict, which plays out in numer-ous terrains; most striking is the common accusation, among seniors, that their relatively empowered lineage juniors are witches. “is has created a population of alleged child sorcerers who, a$er having been expelled from their homes, form itinerant gangs on the streets of Kin-shasa. “ese displaced youths thus forge bonds of community based on perpetuating the mythology of their occult powers.”

Page 15, Underline (Red):
Content: “Filip De Boeck’s (1996, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2004)”

Page 16, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “CONCLUSION”

Page 16, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “In the #lm !e Matrix, the protagonist, Neo, discovers that the world in which he lives is a computer-generated mirage, that the physical world beyond this simulacrum is an all too real nightmare, where humans are allowed to exist because they are the only remaining natural resource,”

Page 16, Underline (Blue):
Content: “In the #lm !e Matrix, the protagonist, Neo, discovers that the world in which he lives is a computer-generated mirage, that the physical world beyond this simulacrum is an all too real nightmare, where humans are allowed to exist because they are the only remaining natural resource,”

Page 16, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: “”e truth of our times is that we are living in this Matrix now: (1) we are increasingly dependent on virtual realities, as Mitchell suggests, (2) these virtual realities are grounded in real human terror, slavery, incarceration, and world destruction somewhere, and (3) the rooted-ness of these virtual worlds in production and cannibalism (both in a metaphoric and a literal sense: for instance, reports of Mai Mai can-nibalism as a form of counter-state production in the DRC) is system-atically concealed from us, partly by virtue of the fetish form in which technology presents itself as a sui generis world-historic force”

Page 16, Underline (Blue):
Content: “”e truth of our times is that we are living in this Matrix now: (1) we are increasingly dependent on virtual realities, as Mitchell suggests, (2) these virtual realities are grounded in real human terror, slavery, incarceration, and world destruction somewhere, and (3) the rooted-ness of these virtual worlds in production and cannibalism (both in a metaphoric and a literal sense: for instance, reports of Mai Mai can-nibalism as a form of counter-state production in the DRC) is system-atically concealed from us, partly by virtue of the fetish form in which technology presents itself as a sui generis world-historic force”

Page 16, Highlight (Cyan):
Content: ” Any social theory that proceeds from virtual worlds as existing realities of their own accord (an analysis of the social-psychological, and even economic, implications of the online game and world Everquest, for example), detached from materiality and production, is choosing the Matrix as its reality, its home, and its sustenance. Doing so ignores the increasingly obvious fact that this virtual reality proceeds from workthat is—in its current organization—rapidly bringing the underside of the matrix (dehumani zat ion, implosion of the state, and ecocide) into being as objective global reality.”

Page 16, Underline (Magenta):
Content: ” Any social theory that proceeds from virtual worlds as existing realities of their own accord (an analysis of the social-psychological, and even economic, implications of the online game and world Everquest, for example), detached from materiality and production, is choosing the Matrix as its reality, its home, and its sustenance. Doing so ignores the increasingly obvious fact that this virtual reality proceeds from workthat is—in its current organization—rapidly bringing the underside of the matrix (dehumani zat ion, implosion of the state, and ecocide) into being as objective global reality. “

Page 17, Underline (Red):
Content: “Appadurai, Arjun. 1986. “Introduction: Commodities and the Politics of Value.” In !e Social Life of !ings: Commodities in Cultural Perspective,ed. Arjun Appadurai, 3–63. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. . 1990. “Disjuncture and Di!erence in the Global Cultural Economy.” Public Culture 2(2):1–24. “

Page 17, Underline (Red):
Content: “Brennan, Denise. 2004. What’s Love Got to Do With It?: Transnational Desires and Sex Tourism in the Dominican Republic. Durham, NC: Duke Uni-versity Press. Bridge, Gavin and Adian Smith. 2003. “Intimate Encoun-ters: Culture—Economy—Commodity.” Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 21:257–268. “

Page 17, Underline (Red):
Content: “Castronova, Edward. 2001. “Virtual Worlds: A First-Hand Account of Market and Society on the Cyberian Frontier.” CESifo Worki ng Paper No. 618.”

Page 18, Underline (Red):
Content: “De Boeck, Filip and Alcinda Honwana, eds. 2005. Makers and Breakers, Made and Broken: Children and Youngsters as Emerging Categories in Postcolonial Africa. Oxford: James Currey. De Boeck, Filip and Marie-Françoise Plissart. 2004. Kinshasa. Tales of the Invisible City. Ghent: Ludion. De Boeck, Filip. 1996. “Postcolonialism, Power and Identity: Local and Global Perspectives from Zaire.” In Postcolonial Identities in Africa, ed. Rich-ard Werbner and Terence Ranger. London: Zed Books. . 1999. “Domesticating Diamonds and Dollars: Identity, Expendi-ture and Sharing in Southwestern Zaire (1984–1997).” In Globalization and Identity: Dialectics of Flow and Closure, ed. Birgit Meyer and Peter Geschiere. Oxford: Blackwells Publishers. . 2000. “Le ‘deuxième monde’ et les ‘enfants-sorciers’ en République Démocratique du Congo.” Politique Africaine 80:32–57. . 2002. “Kinshasa: Tales of the ‘Invisible City’ and the ‘Second World.’ ”In Under Siege: Four African Cities Freetown, Johannesburg, Kin-shasa, Lagos, ed. Okwui Enwezor, et. al., 243–285. Kassel: Hatje Cantz Publishers. . 2004. “On Being Shege in Kinshasa: Children, the Occult and the Street.” In Reinventing Order in the Congo: How People Respond to State Failure in Kinshasa, ed. T. Trefon, 155–173. London: Zed Books. “

Page 19, Underline (Red):
Content: “Ferguson, James. 1999. Expectations of Modernity: Myths and Meanings of Urban Life on the Zambian Copperbelt. Berkeley: University of Califor-nia Press. “

Page 19, Underline (Red):
Content: “Golub, Alex. 2004. “Culture’s Open Sources: Copyright and Taboo.” Anthro- pology Quarterly 77(3):521–530.”

Page 19, Underline (Red):
Content: “Graeber, David. 2001. Toward an Anthropological !eory of Value: !e False Coin of Our Own Dreams. New York: Palgrave.”

Page 19, Underline (Red):
Content: “Gupta, Akhil and James Ferguson, eds. 1997. Anthropological Locations: Boundaries and Grounds of a Field Science. Berkeley: University of Cali- fornia Press.”

Page 19, Underline (Red):
Content: “Harvey, David. 1990. Between Space and Time: Re#ections on the Geographi- cal Imagination. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 80(3):418–434.”

Page 20, Underline (Red):
Content: “Jameson, Frederic. 1991. Postmodernism: !e Cultural Logic of Late Capital- ism. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.”

Page 20, Underline (Red):
Content: “Kopyto!, Igor. 1986. “”e Cultural Biography of “ings: Commoditization as Process.” In !e Social Life of !ings: Commodities in Cultural Perspec-tive, ed. A. Appadurai, 64–91. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. “

Page 21, Underline (Red):
Content: “Marcus, George E. 1995. “Ethnography in/of the World System: “e Emer- gence of Multi-sited 24:95–117.”

Page 21, Underline (Red):
Content: “Multi-sited Ethnography.” Annual Review of Anthropology 24:95–117.”

Page 21, Underline (Red):
Content: “Marx, Karl. 1976 [1867]. Capital: A Critique of Political Economy, Vol ume I. Trans. B. Fowkes. New York: Penguin Books.”

Page 21, Underline (Red):
Content: “Mbembe, Achille. 2000. “At the Edge of the World: Boundaries, Ter r i t or i al – ity, and Sovereignty in Africa.” Public Culture 12(2):259–84. . 2001. On the Postcolony. Berkeley: University of California Press.”

Page 21, Underline (Red):
Content: “Mintz, Sidney W. 1985. Sweetness and Power: !e Place of Sugar in Modern History. New York: Penguin.”

Page 21, Underline (Red):
Content: “Mitchell, William J. 1998. City of Bits: Space, Place and the Infobahn. Cam- bridge, MA: MIT Press.”

Page 21, Underline (Red):
Content: “Simmel, Georg. 1978. !e Philosophy of Money. Trans. Tom Bottomore and David Frisby. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.”

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