boyd – It’s Complicated

It’s Complicated: The Social Lives of Networked Teens

by danah boyd

[ boyd, danah. 2014. It’s Complicated: The Social Lives of Networked Teens. New Haven, CT, USA: Yale University Press. ]

Points

  • “Networked publics are publics that are restructured by networked technologies. As such, they are simultaneously
    1. the space constructed through networked technologies and
    2. the imagined community that emerges as a result of the intersection of people, technology, and practice.” (8, my spacing added)
    3. they are “publics  both  in  the  spatial  sense  and  in  the sense of an imagined community. They are built on and through social media and other emergent technologies … [and] serve much the same functions as publics like the mall or the park did  for  previous  generations  of  teenagers.” (9)
  • “Four affordances, in particular, shape many of the mediated environments that are created by social media.
    • persistence: the durability of online expressions and content;
    • visibility: the potential audience who can bear witness;
    • spreadability: the ease with which content can be shared; and
    • searchability: the ability to find content.” (11)
  • Four affordances further explained:
    • “Content shared through social media often sticks around because technologies are designed to enable persistence… Such content enables interactions to take place over time in an asynchronous fashion.”
    • “Through social media, people can easily share with broad audiences and access content from greater distances, which increases the potential visibility of any particular message… In networked publics, interactions are often public by default, private through effort.”
    • “Much of what people post online is easily spreadable with the click of a few keystrokes. Some systems provide simple buttons to “forward,” “repost,” or “share” content to articulated or curated lists.”
    • “Since the rise of search engines, people’s communications are also often searchable. Search engines make it easy to surface esoteric interactions. These tools are often designed to eliminate contextual cues, increasing the likelihood that searchers will take what they find out of context.” (11-12, italics added)
  • “The internet mirrors, magnifies, and makes more visible the good, bad, and ugly of everyday life. As teens embrace these tools and incorporate them into their daily practices, they show us how our broader social and cultural systems are affecting their lives.” (24)

  • BUT, “As a society, we often spend so much time worrying about young people that we fail to account for how our paternalism and protectionism hinders teens’ ability to become informed, thoughtful, and engaged adults.” (28)

  • Because adults don’t understand teens’ use of social media:
    • we take posts out of context
    • we conflate cyberbullying and “drama,” (“performative interpersonal conflict that takes place in front of an active, engaged audience, often on social media” [138]) when teens feel that actual ‘bullying’ doesn’t happen nearly as much
    • we don’t recognize that teens use social media as a way of being social with each other, not as a method of withdrawing from sociality
    • we see their acts of protest and politics as illegitimate
    • many other reasons…
  • on publics—”People develop a sense for what is normative by collectively adjusting their behavior based on what they see in the publics they inhabit and understand.”(201)
  • definition of meme—”Memes start when a particular digital artifact—be it an image, a song, a hashtag, or a video—is juxtaposed with other text or other media to produce a loosely connected collection of media that share a similar base referent.” (210)

Abstract (blurb)

What is new about how teenagers communicate through services such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram? Do social media affect the quality of teens’ lives? In this eye-opening book, youth culture and technology expert danah boyd uncovers some of the major myths regarding teens’ use of social media. She explores tropes about identity, privacy, safety, danger, and bullying. Ultimately, boyd argues that society fails young people when paternalism and protectionism hinder teenagers’ ability to become informed, thoughtful, and engaged citizens through their online interactions. Yet despite an environment of rampant fear-mongering, boyd finds that teens often find ways to engage and to develop a sense of identity.

Boyd’s conclusions are essential reading not only for parents, teachers, and others who work with teens but also for anyone interested in the impact of emerging technologies on society, culture, and commerce in years to come. Offering insights gleaned from more than a decade of original fieldwork interviewing teenagers across the United States, boyd concludes reassuringly that the kids are all right. At the same time, she acknowledges that coming to terms with life in a networked era is not easy or obvious. In a technologically mediated world, life is bound to be complicated.

Annotation Summary for: Boyd – It’s Complicated

Content: “What Is Social Media?”

Page 20, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “The services known as social media are neither the first—nor the only—tools to support significant social interaction or enable teenagers to communicate and engage in meaningful online com- munities.”

Page 21, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Although teens have embraced countless tools for communicating with one another, their widespread engagement with social media”

Page 22, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “has been unprecedented.”

Page 22, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “The Significance of Networked Publics”

Page 22, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Networked publics are publics that are restructured by networked technologies. As such, they are simultaneously (1) the space constructed through networked technologies and (2) the imag- ined community that emerges as a result of the intersection of people, technology, and practice.5”

Page 22, Highlight (Yellow):

  Content: “Networked publics”

Page 23, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “People are a part of multiple publics—bounded as audiences or by geography—and yet, publics often intersect and intertwine. Publics get tangled up in one another, challenging any effort to understand the boundaries and shape of any particular public.”

Page 23, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Networked  publics  are  publics  both  in  the  spatial  sense  and  in  the sense of an imagined community. They are built on and through social media and other emergent technologies. As spaces, the networked pub-lics that exist because of social media allow people to gather and connect,hang out, and joke around. Networked publics formed through technol-ogy serve much the same functions as publics like the mall or the park did  for  previous  generations  of  teenagers.  As  social  constructs,  social media creates networked publics that allow people to see themselves as a “

Page 23, Stamp (Star (Frame, Red))

Page 24, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “part  of  a  broader  community.  Just  as  shared  TV  consumption  once allowed teens to see themselves as connected through mass media, socialmedia  allows  contemporary  teens  to  envision  themselves  as  part  of  a  collectively imagined community. “

Page 24, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “If I have learned one thing from my research, it’s this: social media services like Facebook and Twitter are providing teens with new opportunities to participate in public life, and this, more than anything else, is what concerns many anxious adults.”

Page 24, Stamp (Quote!)

Page 24, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “To understand what is new and what is not, it’s important to under- stand how technology introduces new social possibilities and how these challenge assumptions people have about everyday interactions.”

Page 24, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “The particular properties or characteristics of an environment can be understood as affordances because they make possible—and, in some cases, are used to encourage—certain types of practices, even if they do not deter- mine what practices will unfold.7”

Page 24, Highlight (Yellow):

  Content: “affordances”

Page 24, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Understanding the affordances of a particular technology or space is important because it sheds light on”

Page 25, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “what people can leverage or resist in achieving their goals.”

Page 25, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “affordances don’t predict how people will communicate, but they do shape the situation nonetheless.”

Page 25, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Four affor- dances, in particular, shape many of the mediated environments that are created by social media. • persistence: the durability of online expressions and content; • visibility: the potential audience who can bear witness; • spreadability: the ease with which content can be shared; and • searchability: the ability to find content. They are:”

Page 25, Stamp (Star (Frame, Red))

Page 25, Highlight (Yellow):

  Content: “persistence:”

Page 25, Highlight (Yellow):

  Content: “visibility:”

Page 25, Highlight (Yellow):

  Content: “spreadability:”

Page 25, Highlight (Yellow):

  Content: “searchability:”

Page 25, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Content shared through social media often sticks around becausetechnologies are designed to enable persistence.”

Page 25, Highlight (Yellow):

  Content: “persistence.”

Page 25, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Such content enables inter- actions to take place over time in an asynchronous fashion.”

Page 25, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Through social media, people can easily share with broad audi- ences and access content from greater distances, which increases the”

Page 26, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “potential visibility of any particular message.”

Page 26, Highlight (Yellow):

  Content: “visibility”

Page 26, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Many popular systems require users to take active steps to limit the visibility of any particular piece of shared content. This is quite different from physical spaces, where people must make a concerted effort to make content visible to siz- able audiences.8”

Page 26, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “In networked publics, interactions are often public by default, private through effort.”

Page 26, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “much of what people post online is easily spreadable with the click of a few keystrokes.9 Some systems provide simple buttons to “forward,” “repost,” or “share” content to articulated or curated lists.”

Page 26, Highlight (Yellow):

  Content: “spreadable”

Page 26, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “since the rise of search engines, people’s communications are also often searchable. Search engines make it easy to surface esoteric interac- tions. These tools are often designed to eliminate contextual cues, increasing the likelihood that searchers will take what they find out of context.”

Page 26, Highlight (Yellow):

  Content: “searchable.”

Page 26, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “None of the capabilities enabled by social media are new. The let- ters my grandparents wrote during their courtship were persistent.”

Page 27, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Messages  printed  in  the  school  newspaper  or  written  on  bathroomwalls  have  long  been  visible.  Gossip  and  rumors  have  historically spread  like  wildfire  through  word  of  mouth.  And  although  search engines certainly make inquiries more efficient, the practice of ask-ing after others is not new, even if search engines mean that no one else knows. What is new is the way in which social media alters and amplifies social situations by offering technical features that people can use to engage in these well-“

Page 28, Stamp (Exclamation Point (!, Red))

Page 28, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “New Technologies, Old Hopes and Fears”

Page 28, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Any new technology that captures widespread attention is likely to provoke serious hand wringing,”

Page 28, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “blown panic. When the sewing machine was introduced, there were people who feared the implications that women moving their legs up and down would affect female sexuality.10”

Page 28, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “The Walkman music player was viewed as an evil device that would encourage people to disappear into separate worlds, unable to communicate with one another.11”

Page 29, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “A great deal of the fear and anxiety that surrounds young people’s use of social media stems from misunderstanding or dashed hopes.14”

Page 30, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Kids Will Be Kids”

Page 32, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: ” Most teens are not compelled  by  gadgetry  as  such—they  are  compelled  by  friendship.The gadgets are interesting to them primarily as a means to a social end. “

Page 32, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Are there teens who have an unhealthy relationship with technol- ogy? Certainly. But most of those who are “addicted” to their phones or computers are actually focused on staying connected to friends in a culture where getting together in person is highly constrained.”

Page 34, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “The social media tools that teens use are direct descendants of the hangouts and other public places in which teens have been congre- gating for decades. What the drive- 1950s and in was to teens in the the mall in the 1980s, Facebook, texting, Twitter, instant messaging, and other social media are to teens now. Teens flock to them know- ing they can socialize with friends and become better acquainted with classmates and peers they don’t know as well.”

Page 36, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “The term digital native is a lightning rod for the endless hopes and fears that many adults attach to this new generation.”

Page 36, Highlight (Yellow):

  Content: “digital native”

Page 36, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Media narrativesoften suggest that kids today—those who have grown up with digital technology—are  equipped  with  marvelous  new  superpowers.  Their multitasking skills supposedly astound adults almost as much as their three thousand text messages per month. Meanwhile, the same breath-less media reports also warn the public that these kids are vulnerable to unprecedented new dangers: sexual predators, cyberbullying, and myriad  forms  of  intellectual  and  moral  decline,  including  internet addiction, shrinking attentions spans, decreased literacy, reckless over- sharing, and so on. As with most fears, these anxieties are not without precedent even if they are often overblown and misconstrued. “

Page 38, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Bullying, racism, sexual predation, slut shaming, and  other  insidious  practices  that  occur  online  are  extraordinarilyimportant to address even if they’re not new. Helping young people navigate  public  life  safely  should  be  of  significant  public  concern. But  it’s  critical  to  recognize  that  technology  does  not  create  these problems, even if it makes them more visible and even if news media relishes  using  technology  as  a  hook  to  tell  salacious  stories  about youth. Meanwhile, we hear a lot about how the online spaces that teens frequent are sinister worlds populated by sexual predators or bullies. But we rarely if ever hear that many teenagers are scarred by the same experiences offline. Bullying,”

Page 38, Stamp (Star (Frame, Red))

Page 38, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “The internet mirrors, magnifies, and makes more visible the good, bad, and ugly of everyday life. As teens embrace these tools and incorporate them into their daily practices, they show us how our broader social and cultural systems are affecting their lives.”

Page 38, Stamp (Quote!)

Page 42, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “As a society, we often spend so much time worrying about young people that we fail to account for how our paternalism and protec- tionism hinders teens’ ability to become informed, thoughtful, and engaged adults.”

Page 43, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “1 identity why do teens seem strange online?”

Page 44, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “expressions. I came to realize taken out of context, what teens appear to do and say on social media seems peculiar if not outright problematic.3 The intended audience matters, regardless of the actual audience. Unfortunately, adults sometimes believe that they understand what they see online without considering how teens imagined the context when  they  originally  posted  a  particular  photograph  or  comment.”

Page 45, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Taken Out of Context”

Page 45, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “When teens interact with social media, they must regularly contend with collapsed contexts and invisible audiences as a part of everyday life.4”

Page 46, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “To complicate matters, just because someone is a part of a teen’s imagined audience doesn’t mean that this person is actually reading what’s posted.”

Page 47, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “it’s often hard to remem- ber that viewers who aren’t commenting might also be watching.”

Page 47, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Thisis not an issue unique to teens, although teens are often chastised for not accounting for adult onlookers. But just as it’s easy to get caught up in  a  conversation  at  a  dinner  party  and  forget  about  the  rest  of  the room,”

Page 47, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “media introduces additional challenges, particularly because of the forth on Twitter. Social persistent and searchable nature of most of these technical systems.”

Page 47, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “When teens face collapsing contexts in physical environments, their natural response is to become quiet. For example, if a group of teens are hanging out at the mall and a security guard or someone’s mother approaches them, they will stop whatever conversation they are having, even if it’s innocuous.”

Page 47, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “the sudden appearance of someone with social authority changes the context entirely.”

Page 47, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Online, there’s no way to change the conversa- tion, both because it’s virtually impossible to know if someone is approaching and because the persistent nature of most social exchanges means that there’s a record of what was previously said.”

Page 50, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Identity Work in Networked Publics”

Page 50, Underline (Red):

  Content: “Life on the Screen, Sherry Turkle”

Page 50, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “In  her  1995  book,  Life  on  the  Screen,  psychologist  Sherry  Turkle began  to  map  out  the  creation  of  a  mediated  future  that  resembled both the utopian and dystopian immersive worlds constructed in sci-ence  fiction  novels.  Watching  early  adopters—especially  children—embrace  virtual  worlds,  she  argued  that  the  distinction  between computers and humans was becoming increasingly blurred and that a new  society  was  emerging  as  people  escaped  the  limitations  of  their offline  identities.  Turkle  was  particularly  fascinated  by  the  playful identity work that early adopters engaged in online, and with a psy-choanalyst’s eye, she extensively considered both the therapeutic andthe deceptive potential of mediated identity work.8 “

Page 50, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “she also highlighted that much could be”

Page 51, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “gained from the process of self- -ple had to act out or work through their identity in order to makereflection that was enabled when peo themselves present in virtual worlds. “

Page 51, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Unlike face- which people took their bodies for granted, people who went online to- face settings inhad to consciously create their digital presence. Media studies scholar Jenny  Sundén  describes  this  process  as  people  typing  themselves into  being.9  “

Page 51, Underline (Red):

  Content: “Jenny Sundén”

Page 51, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Although Turkle recognized that a person’s identity was always tethered to his or her psyche, she left room for arguments that suggested that the internet could—and would—free people of the burdens of their “material”—or physically embodied—identities, enabling them to become a better version of themselves.”

Page 52, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Many teens today go online to socialize with friends they know from physical settings and to portray themselves in online contexts that are more tightly wedded to unmediated social communities. These practices, which encourage greater continuity between teens’ online and offline worlds, were much less common when I was growing up.”

Page 52, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “when a teen chooses to identify as “Jessica Smith” on Facebook and “littlemonster” on Twitter, she’s not creat-ing multiple identities in the psychological sense. She’s choosing to represent herself in different ways on different sites with the expecta-tion  of  different  audiences  and  different  norms. “

Page 53, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “In sociological parlance, the context of social media sites is socially constructed.13”

Page 53, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “More practically, what this means is that teens turn to different sites because they hear that a particular site is good for a given practice.”

Page 53, Note (Orange):

  Media ideologies

Page 53, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “They connect to people they know, observe how those people are using the site, and then reinforce or challenge those”

Page 54, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “norms through their own practices. As a result, the norms of social media are shaped by network effects;”

Page 55, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “- -tion, but it is also important to recognize that there continue to be called  real  names  identity  produc environments where teens gather anonymously or don crafted identi-ties to create a separation between the kinds of social contexts that are viable offline and those that can be imagined online. Most nota-bly, multiplayer online games like World of Warcraft and StarCraft “

Page 55, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “The process of creating an avatar and selecting virtual characteristics requires tremendous reflection, and teens often take this seriously.”

Page 56, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “4chan”

Page 56, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Often referred to as the underbelly of the internet, 4chan is an active source of internet cultural production as well as malicious prankster activity. It is the birthplace of popular memes such as lol- cats:”

Page 56, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Impact font using an internet dialect”

Page 57, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “referred to as lolspeak.17”

Page 57, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “4chan is also where Anonymous —originated.18 “

Page 57, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Crafting a Profile, Creating an Identity Performance”

Page 58, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Many teens post information on social media that they think is funny or intended to give a particular impression to a narrow audi- ence without considering how this same content might be read out of context.”

Page 60, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “One way of reading teens’ profiles is to assume that they are lying. But marking oneself as rich or from a foreign land is not about decep- tion; it’s a simple way to provide entertaining signals to friends while ignoring a site’s expectations.21”

Page 60, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Most teens aren’t enacting an imag-ined  identity  in  a  virtual  world. “

Page 61, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Teens fabricate information because it’s funny, because they believethat the site has no reason to ask, or because they believe that doing so will limit their visibility to people they don’t want to find them. In doing so, they are seeking to control the networked social context. “

Page 61, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Impression Management in a Networked Setting”

Page 61, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “In  The  Presentation  of  Self  in  Everyday  Life,  sociologist  ErvingGoffman describes the social rituals involved in self- “impression management.” “

Page 61, Underline (Red):

  Content: “The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life, Erving Goffman”

Page 61, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “presentation as He argues that the impressions we make”

Page 62, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “on others are a product of what is given and what is given off.”

Page 62, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “In discuss- ing the importance of “teams” for impression management, he points”

Page 63, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “out that people work together to shape impressions, often relying on shared familiarity to help define any given situation in a mutually agreeable manner. He also argues that, “any member of the team has the power to give the show away or to disrupt it by inappropriate con- duct.”25”

Page 63, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Part of what makes impression management in a networked set- ting so tricky is that the contexts in which teens are operating are also networked. Contexts don’t just collapse accidentally; they collapse because individuals have a different sense of where the boundaries exist and how their decisions affect others.”

Page 65, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “I met plenty of teens who wanted to keep secrets from their parents or teachers, but the teens who struggled the most with the challenges of collapsed contexts were those who were trying to make sense of their sexual identity or who otherwise saw themselves as outcasts in their community.”

Page 67, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “As teens struggle to make sense of different social contexts and present themselves appropriately, one thing becomes clear: the inter- net has not evolved into an idyllic zone in which people are free from the limitations of the embodied world.”

Page 142, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “5 bullying is social media amplifying meanness and cruelty?”

Page 144, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Both bullying and drama have imprecise definitions, and technologically mediated meanness and cruelty is interwoven with school conflict.”

Page 144, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “the rise of social media has prompted tremendous concern about “cyberbullying.” Although the data suggests otherwise, the assumption among many parents and journalists is that social media radically increases bullying.2”

Page 145, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Defining Bullying in a Digital Era”

Page 145, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Although scholars have examined different aspects of youth- related meanness and cruelty over the past four decades, there is no universal definition of bullying.”

Page 146, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Dur-ing my fieldwork, I met parents who saw every act of teasing as bul-lying, even when their children did not. At the other extreme, news media has taken to describing serious criminal acts of aggression byteens as bullying rather than using terms like stalking, harassment, or abuse. “

Page 146, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “When both teasing and horrific acts of aggression become “bullying,” it becomes difficult for the public to fully under- stand the significance of any particular bullying claim.”

Page 146, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Networked technologies complicate how people understand bully- ing. Some people believe that cyberbullying is a whole new phenom- enon. Others argue that technology simply offers a new site for bullying, just as the phone did before the internet.”

Page 147, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Tumblr is flush with animated GIFs depicting teens’ interests and tastes. On Instagram, teens share photographs of everything, includ- ing food eaten and friendships cemented. And Facebook is replete with interpersonal interactions from the mundane to the startling.”

Page 148, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Who’s at Fault?”

Page 150, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “The language of bullying often presumes that there’s a perpetrator and a victim.”

Page 150, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “intended adults often fail to recognize the complex When punishment is the focus, there’s often little incentive for understanding how punitive measures enable the cycle of violence to continue. Not only are zero tolerance approaches often unjust and ineffective; they also create additional harm that increases unhealthy interpersonal interactions.”

Page 150, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Teenage Drama”

Page 151, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Repeatedly, my collaborator Alice and I interviewed teenagers who told us that bullying was not nearly as significant an issue as adults thought.”

Page 151, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “After telling us that bullying doesn’t happen in their school, teens would continue to describe a host of different practices that might easily be identified as bullying by adults using different language—gossip and rumors, pranking and punk- ing, and, above all, drama.”

Page 151, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Drawing on what we learned from interviewing teens, Alice and I”

Page 152, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “defined drama as “performative, interpersonal conflict that takes place in front of an active, engaged audience, often on social media.”9”

Page 152, Highlight (Yellow):

  Content: “drama”

Page 152, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: ” Unlike  bullying, which  presumes  a  victim  and  a  perpetrator,  referring  to  conflict  as drama allows teens to distance themselves from any emotional costs associated  with  what  is  happening.  Drama  does  not  automatically position  anyone  as  either  a  target  or  an  abuser.  Those  involved  in drama do not have to see themselves as aggressive or weak but simply as  part  of  a  broader—and,  often,  normative—social  process. “

Page 152, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Although we heard about drama from boys and girls, the term is typically employed in a gendered fashion, with teens describing the ways in which drama is a distinctly female practice.”

Page 154, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “What makes an act cruel is not only about the act itself but how it is intended, perceived, and experienced. In communities that valuehaving a thick skin, some teens feel the need to accept cruelty from friends, even when it hurts. Teens may not accept the mantle of bul-lying because they don’t want to position themselves as victims, but that  does  not  mean  that  they  don’t  feel  attacked. “

Page 155, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “harm to attract attention, support, and validation. To my surprise, digital self- harm turned out to happen more than I realized. Psychologist Elizabeth Englander found that 9 percent of youth she surveyed reported using the internet to bully themselves.11”

Page 155, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “About a third of them felt that they achieved what they wanted andfelt better as a result. This practice, while neither universal nor eventhe majority, certainly complicates the boundaries between seeking attention and engaging in bullying. “

Page 156, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Seeking Social Status”

Page 156, Underline (Red):

  Content: “Freaks, Geeks, and Cool Kids, Murray Milner”

Page 158, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Cachi,  a  Puerto  Rican  eighteen- that  the  flow  of  information  on  Facebook’s  “news  feed”  is  usefulyear- old  living  in  Iowa,  told  me because  it  enables  her  to  “[keep]  track  of  who’s  talking  to  who.” Through Facebook, she can follow the ebbs and flows of friendships and romantic relationships. Cachi believes that being informed about interpersonal interactions is important because it allows her to avoid embarrassing herself in front of others.”

Page 158, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “as the anthropologist Robin Dunbar has shown, gos- sip plays a central role in helping humans build connections.14”

Page 158, Underline (Red):

  Content: “Robin Dunbar”

Page 161, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “The  dynamics  of  drama  and  attention  don’t  unfold  because  of social  media,  even  if  teens  can  use  technology  for  these  purposes. They  are  also  not  innate  properties  of  being  a  teenager.  Teenagerslearn to engage in acts of drama just as they learn different tactics for acquiring attention from others. “

Page 161, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “The Celebritization of Everyday Life”

Page 161, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Reality TV, tabloid magazines, and celebrity news all provide a media- driven template for understanding how attention operates and helps fuel”

Page 162, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “drama for entertainment.”

Page 162, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “The norms of celebrity culture, including the politics of attention and drama, seep into everyday life.17 Teens watch nobodies become famous, and they bear witness to everyday dramas enacted by “real- ity” stars, online attention seekers, and traditional celebrities alike.”

Page 164, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “As teens enter into the spotlight, they become objectified in ways that parallel what celebrities face. This is a process that media scholar Terri Senft calls “microcelebrity.”21”

Page 164, Highlight (Yellow):

  Content: ““microcelebrity.”21”

Page 165, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Addressing a Culture of Meanness and Cruelty”

Page 166, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Social media has not radically altered the dynamics of bullying, but it has made these dynamics more visible to more people. Blaming technology or assuming that conflict will disappear if technology usage is minimized is naive.”

Page 167, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “6 inequality can social media resolve social divisions?”

Page 168, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “The most explicit manifestation of racial segregation was visible to me in schools like Keke’s, where gangs play a central role in shaping social life.”

Page 169, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Gang members may know one another at school, but the tense civility they maintain in the hallways does not carry over to the streets. Teens of different races may con- verse politely in the classroom, but that doesn’t mean they are friends on social media.”

Page 170, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “The Biases in Technology”

Page 170, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “new technology construction typically reinforces existing social divisions. This sometimes occurs when designers intentionally build tools in prejudicial ways. More often it happens inadvertently when creators fail to realize how their biases inform their design decisions or when”

Page 171, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “the broader structural ecosystem in which a designer innovates has restrictions that produce bias as a byproduct.”

Page 171, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “In 1980, technology studies scholar Langdon Winner published a controversial  essay  entitled,  “Do  Artifacts  Have  Politics?”  In  it,  hepoints to the case of urban planner Robert Moses as an example of how  biases  appear  in  design”

Page 171, Underline (Red):

  Content: “Langdon Winner “Do Artifacts Have Politics?””

Page 171, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “In planning park- ways on Long Island, Moses designed bridges and overpasses that were too low for buses and trucks to pass under. Buses, for example, could not use the parkway to get to Jones Beach, a major summer destination.”

Page 171, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Winner argues that these design decisions excluded those who relied on public transportation—the poor, blacks, and other minorities and disadvantaged citizens—from getting to key venues on Long Island. He suggests that Moses incorporated his prejudices into the design of major urban infrastructures.”

Page 171, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “This parable is contested. Responding to Winner’s essay, technol- ogy scholar Bernward Joerges argues in “Do Politics Have Artefacts?” that Moses’s decisions had nothing to do with prejudice but rather resulted from existing regulatory restrictions limiting the height of bridges and the use of parkways by buses, trucks, and commercial vehicles.”

Page 172, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Introducing their book Race in Cyberspace, scholars Beth Kolko, Lisa Nakamura, and Gilbert Rod- man explain that “race matters in cyberspace precisely because all of us who spend time online are already shaped by the ways in which race matters offline and we can’t help but bring our own knowledge, experiences, and values with us when we log on.”8”

Page 172, Underline (Red):

  Content: “Race in Cyberspace, Beth Kolko, Lisa Nakamura, and Gilbert Rod- man”

Page 173, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Social media—and the possibility of connecting people across the globe through communication and information platforms—may seem like a tool for tolerance because technology enables people to see and participate in worlds beyond their own. We often identify teens, in particular, as the great beneficiaries of this new cosmopolitanism.9 However, when we look at how social media is adopted by teens, it becomes clear that the internet doesn’t level inequality in any practical or widespread way. The patterns are all too familiar: prejudice, racism, and intolerance are pervasive.”

Page 173, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “This is because while tech-nology does allow people to connect in new ways, it also reinforces existing connections. It does enable new types of access to informa-tion, but people’s experiences of that access are uneven at best.”

Page 173, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Tools that enable communication do not sweep away”

Page 174, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “distrust, hatred, and prejudice. Racism, in particular, takes on new forms in a networked setting. Far from being a panacea, the internet simply sheds new light on the divisive social dynamics that plague contemporary society.”

Page 174, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Racism in a Networked Age”

Page 177, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Segregation in Everyday Life”

Page 180, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: ” Sociologists  refer  to  the  practice  of  connecting  with  like- minded  individuals  as  homophily.  Studies  have  accounted  for homophily in sex and gender, age, religion, education level, occupa-tion, and social class. But nowhere is homophily more strongly visible in the United States than in the divides along racial and ethnic lines. “

Page 180, Highlight (Yellow):

  Content: “homophily.”

Page 181, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “MySpace vs. Facebook”

Page 183, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “In Distinction, philosopher Pierre Bourdieu describes how one’s education and class position shape perceptions of taste and how distinctions around aesthetics and tastes are used to reinforce class in everyday life.”

Page 183, Underline (Red):

  Content: “Distinction, Pierre Bourdieu”

Page 185, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Networks Matter”

Page 187, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “In his famous trilogy The Information Age, sociologist Manuel Cas-tells argued that the industrial era is ending and that an information age has begun. His first volume—The Rise of the Network Society—makes the case for the power of networks as the organizational infra-structure of an economy based on information. Technology plays a central role in the network society that Castells recognizes is unfold-ing, and he documents the technological divide that put certain cities in better or worse positions to leverage the economic changes taking place.  Although  critics  have  accused  Castells  of  technological  determinism,  Castells’s  analysis  is  more  fruitfully  understood  as  acritical accounting of what economic and cultural shifts are possible because  of  technology  and  why  not  everyone  will  benefit  equally from these shifts.34 In short, not everyone will benefit equally because networks—both social and technical—are neither evenly distributed nor meritocratic. “

Page 187, Underline (Red):

  Content: “The Information Age, Manuel Cas- tells The Rise of the Network Society”

Page 188, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Although everyone  benefits  from  developing  a  heterogeneous  social  network, privileged youth are more likely to have connections to people with more privilege and greater access to various resources, opportunities, and types of information. When information opportunities are teth-ered to social networks, how social relations are constructed matters for  every  aspect  of  social  equality.”

Page 213, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “8 searching for a public of their own”

Page 215, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “The Creation of Networked Publics”

Page 215, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Rather than fighting to reclaim the places and spaces that earlier cohorts had occupied, many teens have taken a different approach: they’ve created their own publics. Through social media, they build networks of people and information. As a result, they both participate in and help create networked publics.”

Page 215, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “networked  publics  serve  as  publics  that  both  rely  on  networked technologies  and  also  network  people  into  meaningful  imagined communities in new ways. Publics are important, not just for enabling political action, but also for providing a mechanism through whichwe  construct  our  social  world.  In  essence,  publics  are  the  fabric  of society. “

Page 215, Stamp (Star (Frame, Red))

Page 215, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Through engagement with publics, people develop a sense of others that ideally manifests as tolerance and respect. Although laws provide concrete rules for what is and is not acceptable in a particular jurisdic-tion, social norms shape most interactions. “

Page 215, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “People develop a sense for what  is  normative  by  collectively  adjusting  their  behavior  based  onwhat they see in the publics they inhabit and understand. This does not mean that the world is inherently safe or that people always respect their neighbors but that social processes underpinning publics buffer people from hatred by creating common cultural ground. “

Page 215, Underline (Magenta):

  Content: “People develop a sense for what is normative by collectively adjusting their behavior based on what they see in the publics they inhabit and understand.”

Page 215, Stamp (Quote!)

Page 217, Highlight (Yellow):

  Content: “digital flâneurs.”

Page 217, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “As teens stroll the digital streets, they must contend with aspects of networked technologies that complicate the social dynamics in front of them. The issues of persistence, visibility, spreadability, and search-ability that I introduced in the first chapter and addressed through-out  the  book  fundamentally  affect  their  experiences  in  networked publics. They must negotiate invisible audiences and the collapsing of contexts. They must develop strategies for handling ongoing sur-veillance and attempts to undermine their agency when they seek to control social situations”

Page 218, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “What makes a particular site or service more or less public is not necessarily about the design of the system but rather how it is situated”

Page 219, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “within  the  broader  social  ecosystem.  Although  Facebook  was  ini-tially  built  to  provide  an  intimate,  private  alternative  to  MySpace,Manu’s practice reveals how—by becoming the de facto social media site for one billion people—it’s often more experientially public than more publicly accessible sites that are not nearly as popular. In this way, the technical architecture of the system matters less than how users understand their relationship to it and how the public perceives any particular site. “

Page 220, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Although some teens are looking for the attention that comes with being public, most teens are simply looking to be in public. Most arefocused on what it means to be a part of a broader social world. They want to connect with and participate in culture, both to develop a sense  of  self  and  to  feel  as  though  they  are  a  part  of  society”

Page 223, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Overwhelmingly, public leaders and journalists deem many actions that teens and young adults take in the name of protest as illegitimate.”

Page 223, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “For example, during my fieldwork, I met a handful of teens who proudly associated themselves with Anonymous, an ad hoc collective that initially emerged to mock Scientology and question other powerful institutions.”

Page 223, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “All the teens I met who were engaged with this movement saw their acts as politicalprotests, even if authorities saw them as anarchic and destructive, ter-rorists  and  traitors.  These  young  people  saw  themselves  as  political, even if adults did not sanction their approach to political engagement. “

Page 224, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “many teens have used the tools of internet culture to express themselves politically. For example, the production and distribution of internet memes is a common form of self- expression, but it can also be a form of political speech.”

Page 224, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Memes start when a particular digital artifact—be it an image, a song, a hashtag, or a video—is juxtaposed with other text or other media to produce a loosely connected collection of media that share a similar base refer- ent.16”

Page 224, Underline (Magenta):

  Content: “Memes start when a particular digital artifact—be it an image, a song, a hashtag, or a video—is juxtaposed with other text or other media to produce a loosely connected collection of media that share a similar base refer- ent.16”

Page 225, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Living in and with Networked Publics”

Page 225, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “The rise of mobile devices is intro- ducing even more challenges, taking the already widespread notion of being “always on” to new levels and creating new pathways for navigat- ing physical spaces.”

Page 225, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “As social media becomes increasingly ubiquitous, the physical and digital will be permanently entangled and blurry.”

Page 226, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “As computer scientist Vint Cerf has said, “The internet is a reflection of our society and that mirror is going to be reflecting what we see. If we do not like what we see in that mirror the problem is not to fix the mirror, we have to fix society.”19”

Page 226, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Teens’ struggles to make sense of the networked publics they inhabit—and the ways in which their practices reveal cultural fractures—high-light some of the challenges society faces as technology gets integrated into  daily  life.  At  the  same  time,  teens  are  as  they  have  always  been, resilient  and  creative  in  repurposing  technology  to  fulfill  their  desires and goals. When they embrace technology, they are imagining new pos-sibilities, asserting control over their lives, and finding ways to be a part of public life. This can be terrifying for those who are intimidated byyouth or nervous for them, but it also reveals that, far from being a dis-traction, social media is providing a vehicle for teens to take ownership over their lives. “

Page 236, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “7. The notion of an affordance was popularized by Donald Norman in hisbook The Design of Everyday Things; he used this term to highlight interaction possibilities that were made possible through specific design decisions. While this term has purchase in the field of human- -larly critiqued in critical disciplines because it is often used to give agency to the computer interaction, it is regu technological artifact without acknowledging the role of the user (see Oliver, “Problem  with  Affordance”).  Although  I  am  aware  of  the  fraught  history  of this term, it is still a useful construct for addressing the design features with which people must contend. “

Page 236, Underline (Red):

  Content: “Donald Norman The Design of Everyday Things; Oliver, “Problem with Affordance”).”

Page 236, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “computer interaction, it is regu larly critiqued in critical disciplines because it is often used to give agency to the”

Page 237, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “10. Coffin, “Consumption, and Images of Women’s Desires.” 11. Hosokawa, “Walkman Effect.””

Page 237, Underline (Red):

  Content: “10. Coffin, “Consumption, and Images of Women’s Desires.”11. Hosokawa, “Walkman Effect.”

Page 237, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “British media studies scholar David Buckingham wrote After the Death of Childhood: Growing Up in the Age of Electronic Media to examine the fears and anxieties that adults had about the effects of media on young people.”

Page 237, Underline (Red):

  Content: “Buckingham After the Death of Childhood: Growing Up in the Age of Electronic Media”

Page 237, Underline (Red):

  Content: “Langdon Winner “Do Artifacts Have Politics?””

Page 237, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: ““social constructivism.” For a literature review of this approach, see Leonardi, Car Crashes Without Cars, chap. 2.”

Page 237, Underline (Red):

  Content: “Car Crashes Without Cars,”

Page 239, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “5. For a deeper analysis on how “imagined audience” functions in social media, see Marwick and boyd, “I Tweet Honestly, I Tweet Passionately”; Litt, “Knock, Knock. Who’s There?”; Brake, “Shaping the ‘Me’ in MySpace”; and Baron, “My Best Day.””

Page 239, Underline (Red):

  Content: “Brake, “Shaping the ‘Me’ in MySpace”

Page 239, Underline (Red):

  Content: “Turkle, Second Self.”

Page 239, Underline (Red):

  Content: “Sundén, Material Virtualities.”

Page 239, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “My analytic approach is heavily influenced by a wide variety of social constructivists, especially the work of Weibe Bijker, Thomas Hughes, and Trevor Pinch. For those who wish to learn more about this analytic approach, see Leonardi, Car Crashes Without Cars, chap. 2.”

Page 239, Underline (Red):

  Content: “Leonardi, Car Crashes Without Cars, chap. 2. Weibe Bijker, Thomas Hughes, Trevor Pinch.”

Page 240, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “17. For an analysis of the linguistic and cultural practices underpinning lolcats, see Lefler, “I Can Has Thesis?”;”

Page 240, Underline (Red):

  Content: “Lefler, “I Can Has Thesis?”

Page 240, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “19. In her work on trolls, Whitney Phillips details how participants are social- ized into underground anonymous communities through shared language, practices, and in-“

Page 240, Underline (Red):

  Content: “Whitney Phillips”

Page 240, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “shared language,”

Page 241, Underline (Red):

  Content: “25. Goffman, Presentation of Self in Everyday Life, 82.”

Page 248, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “2.  A  literature  review  produced  by  the  Harvard  Berkman  Center  for  the Kinder  and  Braver  World  Project  found  that,  although  the  rates  of  bullying ranged  tremendously  depending  on  how  one  defined  bullying,  the  bulk  of  studies suggest that anywhere from 20 percent to 35 percent of youth are bullied offline,  a  rate  that  is  much  higher  than  the  typical  online  rate.  Levy  et  al., “Bullying in a Networked Era.” “

Page 248, Underline (Red):

  Content: ““Bullying in a Networked Era.” Levy et al.,”

Page 248, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “Studies that compare online and offline bully- ing consistently show that youth report that bullying happens more frequently and with greater emotional duress at school. See, e.g., Ybarra, Mitchell, and Espelage, “Comparisons of Bully and Unwanted Sexual Experiences.””

Page 248, Underline (Red):

  Content: “Ybarra, Mitchell, and Espelage, “Comparisons of Bully and Unwanted Sexual Experiences.””

Page 249, Underline (Red):

  Content: “Emily Bazelon Slate,  “What  Really  Happened  to part series published in She also did a deeper analysis of this case and other teen bully- suicides in her book, Sticks and Stones.”

Page 250, Underline (Red):

  Content: “Dunbar, Grooming, Gossip, and the Evolution of Language.”

Page 250, Highlight (Cyan):

  Content: “21. Terri Senft provides a valuable analysis of microcelebrity and the politics of celebrity in a digital world in Camgirls.”

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